I will give an overview of how systems with competing interactions such as repulsion on one scale and attraction on another can generically give rise to bubble, stripe, clump, and other patterns. The same patterns can occur for systems with purely repulsive interactions provided there are two or more distinct length scales in the potential. I will show how these patterns can arise in soft matter systems, charge ordered systems, neutron stars in the form of pasta phases, and vortex states in multi-band superconductors. Under application of an external drive these systems can also exhibit numerous nonequilibrium phase transitions that produce pronounced changes in the transport properties. I will also discuss how pattern formation in these systems can be influenced by a patterned substrate such as a periodic array of two-dimensional pinning sites.