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Salvatore Martirano (1927-1995) composed Underworld during the years 1964 and 1965, just after he joined the theory and composition faculty at the University of Illinois. The piece is scored for four actors, four percussionists, two double basses, tenor saxophone, and two-channel tape. The drama portrays through music Sigmund Freud’s theories about the unconscious mind, and the work’s name refers to a place, often believed to be underground or beyond the horizon, where people, gods, and/or their souls depart for the afterlife. While the Underworld’s performances during the 1960s and 1970s generated mixed critical reception because of the piece’s experimental and adventurous compositional style, today the work provides a fascinating glimpse into a period in American musical history when composers experimented with electronically generated sounds, dramatic art, and conventional modes of musical performance. This exhibit highlights the fascinating story associated with Underworld’s creation and performance in America and Europe.