In this lecture, Professor Thomas W. Gallant argues that the time is ripe for a radical departure in the ways we conceptualize Greek history in general and social history in particular. There is a movement among historians to turn away from the nation-state as the field's primary geographical frame of analysis and to opt instead for regional or transnational perspectives. Taking this as his starting point, he explains why a social history of the Greeks must adopt a framework that is transnationalist, that connects global developments with local experiences and that is broadly comparative. He then discusses the manifold challenges that confront historians attempting to write such a social history of the Greek people in the modern era. In addition to articulating the difficulties historians face, he also highlights the topics and themes on which such a study should focus. Among his most controversial observations is that such a transnational social history of the Greeks can provide a model of how world history and the history of the nation can be blended together into a novel form of historical writing, the transnational history of a single people.