Recent Publications, Reports, and more from the Prairie Research Institute

This list includes recent external publications (e.g., journal articles) authored by institute staff, recent items published by the Institute's Divisions, recent technical reports, and recent dissertations and theses from students whose graduate advisor was an Institute staff member.   For complete catalogs of in-house publications and staff bibliographies of external publications by Division, please see the Institute Publications page on the Prairie Research Institute Library website.

# Recent Publications, Reports, and more from the Prairie Research Institute

• 9/30/2015
Author:
Daniel B. Abrams, Daniel R. Hadley, Devin H. Mannix, George S. Roadcap, Scott C. Meyer, Kenneth J. Hlinka, Kevin Rennels, Kenneth R. Bradbury, Peter M. Chase, Jacob J. Krause

Call Number:
ISWS CR 2015-02
• 2/23/2015
Author:
Westcott, Nancy

Call Number:
ISWS CR 2015-01
• 2/23/2015
Author:
Kelly, Walt, Panno, Sam, Hackley, Keith

Call Number:
ISWS RI-121
• Publication date: 1 March 2015
Source:General and Comparative Endocrinology, Volume 213

Author(s): Loren Merrill, Paulina L. González-Gómez, Vincenzo A. Ellis, Iris I. Levin, Rodrigo A. Vásquez, John C. Wingfield

Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis peruviensis) from valleys in the Atacama Desert of Chile, live in an extremely stable environment, and exhibit overlap in molt and reproduction, with valley-specific differences in the proportion of birds engaged in both. To better understand the mechanistic pathways underlying the timing of life-history transitions, we examined the relationships among baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone, and bacteria-killing ability of the blood plasma (BKA), as well as haemosporidian parasite infections and the genetic structure of two groups of sparrows from separate valleys over the course of a year. Birds neither molting nor breeding had the lowest BKA, but there were no differences among the other three categories of molt-reproductive stage. BKA varied over the year, with birds in May/June exhibiting significantly lower levels of BKA than the rest of the year. We also documented differences in the direction of the relationship between CORT and BKA at different times during the year. The direction of these relationships coincides with some trends in molt and reproductive stage, but differs enough to indicate that these birds exhibit individual-level plasticity, or population-level variability, in coordinating hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis activity with life-history stage. We found weak preliminary evidence for genetic differentiation between the two populations, but not enough to indicate genetic isolation. No birds were infected with haemosporidia, which may be indicative of reduced parasite pressure in deserts. The data suggest that these birds may not trade off among different life-history components, but rather are able to invest in multiple life-history components based on their condition.

• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: November 2015
Source:Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Volume 222

Author(s): Arden R. Bashforth, W. John Nelson

A taxonomic, quantitative, and biostratigraphic analysis is presented for a macrofloral assemblage collected from below the Rock Island (No. 1) Coal Member at the historical Friendship Farm locality in Rock Island County, on the northwestern margin of the Illinois Basin. The Middle Pennsylvanian (middle Moscovian) fossiliferous strata involve the middle Tradewater Formation, and are situated a short distance below the Atokan–Desmoinesian Stage boundary as defined by marine microfossils and palynology. The assemblage of 14 fossil-taxa is overwhelmingly dominated by pteridosperms, including Laveineopteris rarinervis, Neuropteris flexuosa, Alethopteris serlii, Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri, and Mariopteris nervosa, whereas lycopsids, sphenopsids, and ferns are comparatively rare. Homotaxial comparison with the macrofloral biozonation scheme established in Europe indicates an Asturian age for the assemblage, in all likelihood early Asturian (Linopteris obliqua Biozone). Similar comparisons with range limits documented in the Appalachian Basin yield a more ambiguous age, but an early Asturian age is equally probable. These findings indicate that the Bolsovian–Asturian Substage boundary of western Europe lies below the Atokan–Desmoinesian Stage boundary in the Illinois Basin, boundaries that have traditionally been correlated by palynology. The Middle Pennsylvanian interval near these boundaries is being increasingly recognized as one of significant environmental change, reflected in marked lithological and biological modifications throughout tropical Euramerica. However, the fact that the Bolsovian–Asturian and Atokan–Desmoinesian boundaries are not synchronous, albeit being broadly equivalent, suggests that the environmental perturbation was a protracted event that may have had global consequences.

• Publication date: 1 January 2016
Source:Geoderma, Volume 261

Author(s): Xiaodong Miao, Hong Wang, Paul R. Hanson, Joseph A. Mason, Xiaodong Liu

The time over which a soil has developed since the parent materials were deposited and subaerially exposed, referred to here as soil development time, is of considerable interest to pedologists, geomorphologists, geologists, archeologist, and paleoclimatologists. Soil development time has been estimated both indirectly, based on the degree of soil development, and directly, by radiocarbon dating of soil organic matter, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of parent material deposition, and through exposure dating using cosmogenic nuclides. Here we propose a new model for estimating the soil development time by subtracting the low molecular weight (LMW) or pyrolysis-volatile 14C age of the uppermost A horizon of a soil from the OSL age of the C horizon of the parent material [soil time=OSL age(parent C horizon) 14C age(LMW fraction of uppermost A horizon)]. The LMW organic compound fraction represents the most mobile carbon compounds in the soil organic carbon pool, and is least resistant to physical, chemical, and biodegradation in the soil environment, potentially yielding the youngest 14C age. OSL dating of the C horizon provides an estimate of the time since deposition of unconsolidated parent material. Thus, the difference in the two ages can be used to estimate the time that has elapsed for pedogenic alteration from deposition of the parent material to the most recent additions of soil organic carbon. We applied this new approach in four scenarios: (1) in a modern soil that developed downward in loess; (2) in a buried soil developed in aggrading loess (a cumulative soil which grows upward); (3) in a buried soil formed in dune sand; and (4) in a counterexample showing that simple subtraction is not always appropriate because of changes in soil's parent materials from loess to sand. These case studies reveal that this approach constrains soil development time more reasonably than can be commonly done with either OSL or radiocarbon dating alone. The difference in 14C ages between the uppermost and lowermost sola of a soil profile almost certainly underestimates the time of soil development, and the difference in OSL ages taken from sediment units overlying and underlying a buried soil most likely overestimates it. A combination of OSL and radiocarbon dating better constrains soil development time, broadening the applications of these two dating methods beyond their use for cross-checking the accuracy of the other dating method.

• Publication date: May 2015
Source:Ecological Indicators, Volume 52

Author(s): Jeffrey W. Matthews, Greg Spyreas, Colleen M. Long

Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) was developed as a tool for quantifying the conservation value of natural areas based on their plant species composition and richness. Floristic Quality Assessment is based on Coefficients of Conservatism (C values) assigned to each plant species in a region or state. Each species i, is assigned a value C i , on a scale of 0–10 by expert botanists, based on its fidelity to undegraded natural areas. A criticism of Floristic Quality Assessment is the subjective nature of these C values. Our objective was to determine if C values of individual species are indicative of the C values of species with which they co-occur. If subjectively assigned species’ C values carry meaningful information about plant assemblages and the conservation value of particular habitats, then individual species should tend to co-occur with species of similar C. We tested this hypothesis using occurrences of 1014 species in 388 forests and wetlands across Illinois, USA. Using a null model approach, we found that species co-occurred with species of similar C far more often than would be expected by chance; affirming the predictive ability of subjectively assigned C values. Furthermore, we quantified the extent to which each species was under- or overvalued relative to its co-occurring species assemblages to assess if any species C values were mis-assigned. Woody plants and perennial herbs, as groups, were undervalued as ecological indicators, i.e. their C values were too low. Several non-native species, which, by convention, are assigned a C of zero, were over- or under-valued relative to native species with a C of zero. Based on species occurrences across hundreds of sites, our results indicated that, despite their subjective basis, C values carry considerable ecological information, such that a given species can be used to predict the C values of its co-occurring assemblage. However, some species C values appeared less accurate than others. Our methodological approach could be applied in other states or regions to validate and refine C value assignments.

• Publication date: February 2015
Source:Quaternary Geochronology, Volume 25

Author(s): David A. Grimley, Eric A. Oches

Amino acid racemization (AAR) values measured in gastropod shells are demonstrated to be an important aid for correlations and chronology of fossiliferous loessal, lacustrine, and alluvial Pleistocene units in Illinois, central USA. Aspartic acid (Asx) and Glutamic acid (Glx) D/L values were analyzed on a total of 167 Succinea, Hendersonia, and Pomatiopsis shells from 9 geologic units, with clear stratigraphic relationships, at a total of 18 localities in central and southern Illinois. AAR data from Hendersonia and Succinea are less variable and more normally distributed than Pomatiopsis data, but the latter are locally useful for units lacking preferred genera. Based on analysis of variance tests, Asx- and Glx-D/L data can confidently distinguish among Wisconsin Episode (MIS 2–3), Illinois Episode (MIS 6), late pre-Illinois Episode (MIS 8–14), and early pre-Illinois Episode (MIS 20) deposits. Last glacial Peoria Silt (MIS 2) and Roxana Silt (MIS 3), have mean Asx-D/L values of 0.34–0.37 and 0.42–0.43, respectively, considering all genera. The Illinois Episode Petersburg Silt (∼150 ka) has Asx-D/L ($x ¯$: 0.50–0.56) and Glx- D/L ($x ¯$: 0.17–0.22) ratios that are statistically distinctive from other units. Three late pre-Illinois Episode units (Harkness Silt Member, Belgium Member, and Banner silt units) have similar Asx D/L values ($x ¯$: 0.63–0.71) and, along with stratigraphic context, confirm extensive middle Pleistocene glaciations in the region. Using parabolic kinetic age models, depositional ages of ∼550–250 ka (MIS 14–8) are implied for these units, with a favored correlation with MIS 12 (∼450 ka), a time of especially high global ice volume. The Canteen member, a preglacial alluvium–colluvium below the Harkness Silt, is statistically indistinguishable from other pre-Illinois Episode units with AAR data, but was likely deposited during ∼660–480 ka (MIS 16 or 14), based on parabolic age estimates. The paleomagnetically reversed County Line silt (∼780–830 ka: MIS 20), with the highest mean AAR values, is the oldest known gastropod-bearing Pleistocene unit in Illinois.

• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: 1 March 2015
Source:International Journal of Coal Geology, Volumes 141–142

Author(s): Susan M. Rimmer, John C. Crelling, Lois E. Yoksoulian

Numerous examples of coke produced by igneous intrusion into coal have been reported in the Spanish Peaks region of south central Colorado. However, in a recent study of an intruded section of the Raton Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene) along the Purgatoire River near Medina Plaza, CO, coked bitumen has been observed. This material occurs in “fingers” (hexagonally jointed bodies) in a shaley xenolith within a lamprophyre sill and in carbonaceous Type III shale directly below the sill. The coke fingers are characterized by a remarkable flow mosaic texture, high vitrinite/coke reflectance (average random reflectance between 8% and 9%, but with maximum readings around 14–15%), high anisotropy, abundant devolatilization vacuoles, and an absence of inertinite inclusions. Within the underlying shales, the coked bitumen occurs as pore, void, and fracture linings and fillings. Geochemically, the coke in the fingers has low S1 and S2 values (&lt;0.2 and &lt;3mg HC/g, respectively), and low HI and OI values (&lt;6mg HC/g TOC and &lt;3mg CO2/g TOC, respectively). Within the fingers, there is evidence for multiple stages of accumulation, including coarse-grained circular or ribbon coke frequently containing pores edged by vapor-deposited carbon (pyrolytic carbon), layers of pyrolytic carbon, clusters of spherulitic pyrolytic carbon, and layers of highly porous coke. This coked bitumen is quite different from coked coal from the same locality. The coked coal has a medium-grained circular mosaic texture that is consistent with the high volatile bituminous rank of unaltered coal in the area. The coal-derived coke has similar devolatilization vacuoles but also has numerous inclusions of inertinite macerals such as fusinite and secretinite. A previously reported coal “dike” that had flowed through a sill in the same area also showed circular mosaic texture. These observations suggest that the coke found in this study was not formed by the direct coking of coal, but from a mobile phase (bitumen or pitch) that was subsequently coked by the intrusion. This bitumen was either derived from the abundant coal within the section above the sill, or from the organic matter contained within the Type III carbonaceous shales, or both. Unaltered Type III shale sampled at this site has a HI of ~350mg HC/g TOC suggesting some, albeit limited, capacity to generate petroleum. We suggest that bitumen was generated prior to or during the time of intrusion and was subsequently coked by the high temperatures of the emplaced sill. As the bitumen pooled adjacent to the sill, rapid heating led to the development of mesophase, resulting in a highly anisotropic ribbon mosaic texture on cooling, and vaporization of gases that subsequently condensed along pores, vacuoles, and fractures as pyrolytic carbon and spherulitic pyrolytic carbon. Bitumen within the underlying silty shales was also coked, but to a lesser degree. The texture of this coked bitumen looks very much like commercially produced petroleum coke. This coked bitumen differs from other reports of coked bitumen in its mode of occurrence (coke fingers in a xenolith), ribbon mosaic structure, and extremely high anisotropy and reflectance.

• Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A. writer Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A. by Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A. published by Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2013
(AN 92620217)
America: History & Life
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• Pauketat, Timothy R. writer Pauketat, Timothy R. by Pauketat, Timothy R. published by Pauketat, Timothy R.
Title: Archaeology: The Discipline of Things
Author(s): Pauketat, Timothy R.
Source: CAMBRIDGE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 25 (4): 909-911 NOV 2015
Document Type: Book Review
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• Kozuch, Laura writer Kozuch, Laura by Kozuch, Laura published by Kozuch, Laura
Southeastern Archaeology; 07/01/2013
(AN 89690048)
America: History & Life
• Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A. writer Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A. by Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A. published by Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2012
(AN 85351845)
America: History & Life
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: September 2015
Source:Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, Volume 80, Issue 5

Author(s): Torrey W. Rodgers, Jacalyn Giacalone, Edward J. Heske, Natalie C. Pawlikowski, Robert L. Schooley

In solitary carnivores, scent marking is an important form of communication among individuals. We examined the extent of potential communication among ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) at communal latrine sites at the population level. We used a combination of camera-trapping and noninvasive genetics to monitor 18 ocelot latrines in an isolated population on Barro Colorado Island in the Republic of Panama. We found that 72% of monitored ocelot latrines were used by multiple individuals of both sexes, with a mean of 3.0 individuals (range 1–9) per year using each latrine. One highly used latrine was visited by 17 different individuals including 11 males and 6 females over the course of 6 years. Based on visits to the same latrine within 10 days of one another, potential for scent communication among individuals was high. Males had the potential to communicate with a mean of 5.9 other individuals (range 2–14), and females had the potential to communicate with a mean of 4.5 other individuals (range 3–12) at latrines. We conclude that communal latrines are important centers of scent communication for Leopardus pardalis.

• Publication date: February 2015
Source:Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 125

Author(s): Meghan O. Milbrath, Toan van Tran, Wei-Fong Huang, Leellen F. Solter, David R. Tarpy, Frank Lawrence, Zachary Y. Huang

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are infected by two species of microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Epidemiological evidence indicates that N. ceranae may be replacing N. apis globally in A. mellifera populations, suggesting a potential competitive advantage of N. ceranae. Mixed infections of the two species occur, and little is known about the interactions among the host and the two pathogens that have allowed N. ceranae to become dominant in most geographical areas. We demonstrated that mixed Nosema species infections negatively affected honey bee survival (median survival=15–17days) more than single species infections (median survival=21days and 20days for N. apis and N. ceranae, respectively), with median survival of control bees of 27days. We found similar rates of infection (percentage of bees with active infections after inoculation) for both species in mixed infections, with N. apis having a slightly higher rate (91% compared to 86% for N. ceranae). We observed slightly higher spore counts in bees infected with N. ceranae than in bees infected with N. apis in single microsporidia infections, especially at the midpoint of infection (day 10). Bees with mixed infections of both species had higher spore counts than bees with single infections, but spore counts in mixed infections were highly variable. We did not see a competitive advantage for N. ceranae in mixed infections; N. apis spore counts were either higher or counts were similar for both species and more N. apis spores were produced in 62% of bees inoculated with equal dosages of the two microsporidian species. N. ceranae does not, therefore, appear to have a strong within-host advantage for either infectivity or spore growth, suggesting that direct competition in these worker bee mid-guts is not responsible for its apparent replacement of N. apis.

### Graphical abstract

• Publication date: May 2015
Source:Mycoscience, Volume 56, Issue 3

Author(s): Steven E. Zelski, Huzefa A. Raja, Andrew N. Miller, Carol A. Shearer

A new species, Conioscypha peruviana was isolated from submerged woody debris collected in streams, rivers and a swamp in Peru. The anamorph formed in culture and morphological and molecular data support the inclusion in the genus. A phylogeny generated with maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches placed the fungus in a well-supported clade with other Conioscypha and Conioscyphascus species. Nomenclature used herein reflects changes made in the Melbourne Code, with Conioscyphascus being considered a later synonym of Conioscypha. The fungus is described, illustrated and compared to morphologically similar taxa. In addition, Conioscypha gracilis comb. nov. is identified from both lentic and lotic habitats in Peru.

• Mazrim, Robert writer Mazrim, Robert by Mazrim, Robert published by Mazrim, Robert
International Journal of Historical Archaeology; 12/01/2013
(AN 90632189)
America: History & Life
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: Available online 2 November 2015
Source:Data in Brief

Author(s): Sarah E. Bush, Jason D. Weckstein, Daniel R. Gustafsson, Julie Allen, Emily DiBlasi, Scott M. Shreve, Rachel Boldt, Heather R. Skeen, Kevin P. Johnson

Data is presented in support of a phylogenetic reconstruction of one of the largest, and most poorly understood, groups of lice: the Brueelia-complex (Bush et al., 2015 [1]). Presented data include the voucher information and molecular data (GenBank accession numbers) of 334 ingroup taxa within the Brueelia-complex and 30 outgroup taxa selected from across the order Phthiraptera. Also included are phylogenetic reconstructions based on Bayesian inference analyses of combined COI and EF-1α sequences for Brueelia-complex species and outgroup taxa.

• Publication date: March 2015
Source:Quaternary Research, Volume 83, Issue 2

Author(s): Steven L. Voelker, Michael C. Stambaugh, Richard P. Guyette, Xiahong Feng, David A. Grimley, Steven W. Leavitt, Irina Panyushkina, Eric C. Grimm, Jeremiah P. Marsicek, Bryan Shuman, B. Brandon Curry

During the last deglaciation temperatures over midcontinental North America warmed dramatically through the Bølling-Allerød, underwent a cool period associated with the Younger-Dryas and then reverted to warmer, near modern temperatures during the early Holocene. However, paleo proxy records of the hydroclimate of this period have presented divergent evidence. We reconstruct summer relative humidity (RH) across the last deglacial period using a mechanistic model of cellulose and leaf water δ18O and δD combined with a pollen-based temperature proxy to interpret stable isotopes of sub-fossil wood. Midcontinental RH was similar to modern conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum, progressively increased during the Bølling-Allerød, peaked during the Younger-Dryas, and declined sharply during the early Holocene. This RH record suggests deglacial summers were cooler and characterized by greater advection of moisture-laden air-masses from the Gulf of Mexico and subsequent entrainment over the mid-continent by a high-pressure system over the Laurentide ice sheet. These patterns help explain the formation of dark-colored cumulic horizons in many Great Plains paleosol sequences and the development of no-analog vegetation types common to the Midwest during the last deglacial period. Likewise, reduced early Holocene RH and precipitation correspond with a diminished glacial high-pressure system during the latter stages of ice-sheet collapse.

• Publication date: June 2015
Source:Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 41, Issue 2

Author(s): Michael J. Weber, Blake C. Ruebush, Sara M. Creque, Rebecca A. Redman, Sergiusz J. Czesny, David H. Wahl, John M. Dettmers

Recruitment of fishes is difficult to predict due to inter-annual and system variation. For example, the early life history of fishes inhabiting expansive freshwater systems such as the Great Lakes differs from other freshwater environments but has received less attention. Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, an anadromous species adapted to living exclusively in freshwater, provides an opportunity to evaluate processes regulating growth and survival of a fish with marine origins inhabiting a large freshwater system. We collected age-0 alewives at three distinct locations (nearshore Chicago, nearshore Waukegan, offshore) in southwestern Lake Michigan during 2005 and 2006 to estimate density, growth, and survival. Larval alewife densities were up to three times greater and hatching peaks occurred earlier in 2005 compared to 2006. Back-calculated alewife hatch dates indicated that peak hatch occurred two weeks prior to peak catch rates, with similar hatching distributions of larvae collected between nearshore and offshore environments. Alewives up to approximately 16 d of age were collected in both nearshore locations before appearing in the offshore environment. Alewife growth rates were influenced by zooplankton density, water temperature, and hatching date whereas survival from the nearshore to offshore environment was influenced by wind events and hatching date. Prey availability and passive larval transport driven by offshore wind events are more commonly identified as factors influencing marine rather than freshwater larvae. Thus, factors affecting recruitment dynamics of fishes in large complex inland systems may be more similar to marine than freshwater systems.

• Publication date: 1 September 2015
Source:Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 433

Author(s): Howard J. Falcon-Lang, Spencer G. Lucas, Hans Kerp, Karl Krainer, Isabel P. Montañez, Daniel Vachard, Dan S. Chaney, Scott D. Elrick, Dori L. Contreras, Francine Kurzawe, William A. DiMichele, Cindy V. Looy

The Pennsylvanian–Permian transition has been inferred to be a time of significant glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere, the effects of which were manifested throughout the world. In the equatorial regions of Pangea, the response of terrestrial ecosystems was highly variable geographically, reflecting the interactions of polar ice and geographic patterns on atmospheric circulation. In general, however, there was a drying trend throughout most of the western and central equatorial belt. In western Pangea, the climate proved to be considerably more seasonally dry and with much lower mean annual rainfall than in areas in the more central and easterly portions of the supercontinent. Here we describe lower Permian (upper Asselian) fossil plant assemblages from the Community Pit Formation in Prehistoric Trackways National Monument near Las Cruces, south-central New Mexico, U.S.A. The fossils occur in sediments within a 140-m-wide channel that was incised into indurated marine carbonates. The channel filling can be divided into three phases. A basal channel, limestone conglomerate facies contains allochthonous trunks of walchian conifers. A middle channel fill is composed of micritic limestone beds containing a brackish-to-marine fauna with carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic composition that provide independent support for salinity inferences. The middle limestone also contains a (par)autochthonous adpressed megaflora co-dominated by voltzian conifers and the callipterid Lodevia oxydata. The upper portions of the channel are filled with muddy, gypsiferous limestone that lacks plant fossils. This is the geologically oldest occurrence of voltzian conifers. It also is the westernmost occurrence of L. oxydata, a rare callipterid known only from the Pennsylvanian–Permian transition in Poland, the Appalachian Basin and New Mexico. The presence of in situ fine roots within these channel-fill limestone beds and the taphonomic constraints on the incorporation of aerial plant remains into a lime mudstone indicate that the channel sediments were periodically colonized by plants, which suggests that these species were tolerant of salinity, making these plants one of, if not the earliest unambiguous mangroves.

• Publication date: August 2015
Source:Geoderma, Volumes 251–252

Author(s): Sarah L. O'Brien, Julie D. Jastrow, David A. Grimley, Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

Cultivation of undisturbed soils dramatically depletes organic carbon stocks at shallow depths, releasing a substantial quantity of stored carbon to the atmosphere. Restoration of native ecosystems can help degraded soils rebuild a portion of the depleted soil organic matter. However, the rate and magnitude of soil carbon accrual can be highly variable from site to site. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling soil organic carbon stocks is necessary to improve predictions of soil carbon recovery. We measured soil organic carbon stocks and a suite of edaphic factors in the upper 10cm of a series of restored tallgrass prairies representing a range of drainage conditions. Our findings suggest that factors related to soil organic matter stabilization mechanisms (texture, polyvalent cations) were key predictors of soil organic carbon, along with variables that influence plant and microbial biomass (available phosphorus, pH) and soil moisture. Exchangeable soil calcium was the strongest single predictor, explaining 74% of the variation in soil organic carbon, followed by clay content, which explained 52% of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the cumulative effects of even relatively small differences in these edaphic properties can have a large impact on soil carbon stocks when integrated over several decades.

• Publication date: March 2015
Source:Environmental Pollution, Volume 198

Author(s): Laurel K. Dodgen, Aiko Ueda, Xiaoqin Wu, David R. Parker, Jay Gan

The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p &lt; 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p &lt; 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p &lt; 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common.

### Teaser

High plant transpiration in arid and hot areas may lead to increased foliar accumulation of PPCP/EDCs from treated wastewater irrigation.

• Publication date: December 2015
Source:Environmental Pollution, Volume 207

Author(s): Serena Ciparis, Andrew Phipps, David J. Soucek, Carl E. Zipper, Jess W. Jones

The Clinch and Powell Rivers (Virginia, USA) support diverse mussel assemblages. Extensive coal mining occurs in both watersheds. In large reaches of both rivers, major ion concentrations are elevated and mussels have been extirpated or are declining. We conducted a laboratory study to assess major ion effects on growth and survival of juvenile Villosa iris. Mussels were exposed to pond water and diluted pond water with environmentally relevant major ion mixtures for 55 days. Two treatments were tested to mimic low-flow concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, $SO 4 2 −$, $HCO 3 +$, K+ and Cl in the Clinch and Powell Rivers, total ion concentrations of 419 mg/L and 942 mg/L, respectively. Mussel survival (&gt;90%) and growth in the two treatments showed little variation, and were not significantly different than in diluted pond water (control). Results suggest that major ion chronic toxicity is not the primary cause for mussel declines in the Clinch and Powell Rivers.

### Teaser

Mixtures of major ions mimicking mining-affected Appalachian rivers had no effect on survival or growth of a native species of freshwater mussel.

• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: October 2015
Source:Chemosphere, Volume 136

Author(s): Ling Zhao, Xinde Cao, Wei Zheng, Qun Wang, Fan Yang

The feedstocks for biochar production are diverse and many of them contain various minerals in addition to being rich in carbon. Twelve types of biomass classified into 2 categories: plant-based and municipal waste, were employed to produce biochars under 350°C and 500°C. Their pH, point of zero net charge (PZNC), zeta potential, cation and anion exchange capacity (CEC and AEC) were analyzed. The municipal waste-based biochars (MW-BC) had higher mineral levels than the plant-based biochars (PB-BC). However, the water soluble mineral levels were lower in the MW-BCs due to the dominant presence of less soluble minerals, such as CaCO3 and (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2. The higher total minerals in MW-BCs accounted for the higher PZNC (5.47–9.95) than in PB-BCs (1.91–8.18), though the PZNCs of the PB-BCs increased more than that of the MW-BCs as the production temperature rose. The minerals had influence on the zeta potentials via affecting the negative charges of biochars and the ionic strength of solution. The organic functional groups in PB-BCs such as –COOH and –OH had a greater effect on the CEC and AEC, while the minerals had a greater effect on that of MW-BCs. The measured CEC and AEC values had a strong positive correlation with the total amount of soluble cations and anions, respectively. Results indicated that biochar surface charges depend not only on the organic functional groups, but also on the minerals present and to some extent, minerals have more influences on the surface electrochemistry and ion exchange properties of biochar.

• Pauketat, Timothy R. writer Pauketat, Timothy R. by Pauketat, Timothy R. published by Pauketat, Timothy R.
Title: Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships between Humans and Things
Author(s): Pauketat, Timothy R.
Source: CAMBRIDGE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 25 (4): 909-911 NOV 2015
Document Type: Book Review
• Fishel, Richard L. writer Fishel, Richard L. by Fishel, Richard L. published by Fishel, Richard L.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2012
(AN 85351847)
America: History & Life
• Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal writer Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal by Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal published by Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2013
(AN 92620212)
America: History & Life
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: Available online 21 April 2015
Source:Journal of Great Lakes Research

Author(s): Austin Happel, Sara Creque, Jacques Rinchard, Tomas Höök, Harvey Bootsma, John Janssen, David Jude, Sergiusz Czesny

Describing food web structure through either direct or indirect diet analysis is often a fundamental step in elucidating ecosystem dynamics and developing resource management goals. The present study examines spatial trophic connections in an opportunistic forager, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), through the concomitant use of stomach content, fatty acid profiles, and stable isotope ratio methods. During September 2010, yellow perch were collected at nine coastal locations representative of Lake Michigan's habitat heterogeneity. The three diet assessment methods revealed differential levels of spatial diet heterogeneity. In general, yellow perch relied on pelagic prey more along the eastern shoreline, and over rocky substrates within each shoreline grouping. Conversely, high benthivory was noted in yellow perch from sandy substrates and western locations. Intra-population spatial diet dissimilarity may be common yet over looked among other species within large systems. We further advocate the concurrent examination of chemical ecological tracers (e.g., stable isotopes and fatty acid profiles) and stomach contents to investigate diet patterns of predators.

• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: January 2015
Source:Cretaceous Research, Volume 52, Part B

Author(s): Nathan Barling, David M. Martill, Sam W. Heads, Florence Gallien

Fossil insects from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of north-east Brazil are preserved as goethite replacements in laminated limestones of lacustro-lagoonal origin. They display remarkable degrees of morphological detail down to the macromolecular level in some examples. We document the fidelity of preservation and reveal an astonishing variety of morphological detail comparable in some instances with that found in amber inclusions.

• Pauketat, Timothy R. writer Pauketat, Timothy R. by Pauketat, Timothy R. published by Pauketat, Timothy R.
Title: How Things Shape the Mind: A Theory of Material Engagement
Author(s): Pauketat, Timothy R.
Source: CAMBRIDGE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 25 (4): 909-911 NOV 2015
Document Type: Book Review
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: 1 November 2015
Source:Fuel, Volume 159

Author(s): Patrick Biller, Brajendra K. Sharma, Bidhya Kunwar, Andrew B. Ross

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) has developed as one of the most promising technologies for biofuel production from wet biomass feedstocks in recent years. In the current study, a microalgae slurry was processed in a continuous flow hydrothermal processing unit capable of 2.5l/h flow rates, temperatures of 350°C and pressure of up to 206bar. 40wt.% bio-crude yields were obtained when processing Chlorella at residence times of 1.4 and 5.8min. The higher heating value of the bio-crude was approximately 35MJ/kg, however the nitrogen content of 6% and oxygen content of 11% render it unsuitable for direct combustion. In order to investigate the upgrading potential, the bio-crude was hydroprocessed using CoMo and NiMo catalysts at two temperatures (350°C and 405°C) in a stirred reactor. Both catalysts showed similar activity during hydroprocessing. Nitrogen content was typically reduced by 60% at 405°C whereas oxygen content was reduced by 85%. Fractionation of the upgraded oils result in approximately 25% gasoline, 50% diesel and 25% heavy fuel oil fractions. Further analysis of oils by GC–MS, Sim-Dis and elemental analysis give insight into the fuel quality and nitrogen fractionation. The majority of oxygen is shown to be associated with high molecular weight material and can be reduced further following solvent extraction of the oils while the nitrogen content could only be reduced slightly.

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• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: July 2015
Source:Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Volume 129

Author(s): Renata A. Simões, Julia R. Feliciano, Leellen F. Solter, Italo Delalibera

In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT50) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9±0.3 to 42±2.3days at concentration of 5×105–0.5 spores/mm3 artificial diet (107–10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32±0.7 to 37±0.7days at concentration of 5×105–5×102 spores/mm3 artificial diet (107–104 spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC50) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9–17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200–4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm3 artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm ) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male or female infected. The growth rate of individual larvae produced by uninfected adults was 48.2% faster than of larval offspring of infected females and it was negative (−0.003) when males were infected. Our study confirms the negative impact of the Nosema sp. in mass rearing of D. saccharalis for parasitoid production but shows potential for use as a microbial control agent of the sugarcane borer.

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• Publication date: January 2015
Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 101

Author(s): Marcelo S. Vieira-Filho, Christopher Lehmann, Adalgiza Fornaro

Wet deposition was measured in two urban areas of Brazil, Cubatão and São Paulo megacity (MASP), from July 2009 to August 2010. Cubatão is characterized by the large and complex industrial sector and MASP by a large vehicular fleet, and these different sources contributed to 15.5 × 106 and 25.5 × 106 kg year−1 of SO2 air emissions, respectively. The rainwater volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH values and [SO4 2−] in Cubatão and in MASP were 4.8 and 7.1 μmol L−1, and 5.3 and 24.5 μmol L−1, respectively. Regarding nitrogen content, the difference between reduced and oxidized nitrogen was more pronounced in MASP, where more than 61% of total nitrogen scavenged as NH4 +. The wet-only sulfur deposition in Cubatão was 17.0 kg Sha−1 y−1, which was 2.7-fold higher than that in MASP. Although the higher air pollutant emissions occur in MASP, the worst air quality and wet deposition has been observed in Cubatão due to the orographic conditions.

• Publication date: 15 January 2016
Source:Applied Energy, Volume 162

Author(s): Tyler A. DeNooyer, Joshua M. Peschel, Zhenxing Zhang, Ashlynn S. Stillwell

Thermoelectric power plants contribute 90% of the electricity generated in the United States. Steam condensation in the power generation cycle creates a need for cooling, often accomplished using large amounts of water. These large water requirements can lead to negative consequences of power plants dialing down or shutting down during times of low water availability. Consequently, water constraints can translate into energy constraints. Projected future population growth and changing climate conditions might also increase the competition for water in many areas, motivating a resource accounting analysis to both establish a baseline of current water requirements and simulate possible impacts from future water and energy management decisions. Our analysis of the current water demands for power generation, focused on the state of Illinois, combined existing digital spatial datasets with engineering basic principles to synthesize a geographic information systems (GIS) model of current and projected water demand for thermoelectric power plants. We evaluated two potential future cases based on water use implications: (1) a shift in fuel from coal to natural gas, and (2) a shift in cooling technology from open-loop to closed-loop cooling. Our results show that a shift from coal-generated to natural gas-generated electricity could decrease statewide water consumption by 0.10billionm3/yr (32% decrease) and withdrawal by 7.9billionm3/yr (37% decrease), on average. A shift from open-loop to closed-loop cooling technologies could decrease withdrawals by an average of 21billionm3/yr (96% decrease), with the tradeoff of increasing statewide water consumption for power generation by 0.18billionm3/yr (58% increase). Furthermore, we performed an economic analysis of retrofitting open-loop cooling systems to closed-loop cooling, revealing an annual cost between \$0.58 and \$1.3billion to retrofit the 22 open-loop cooling plants considered, translating to an effective water price between \$0.03 and \$0.06/m3. The synergies and tradeoffs between water resources and power generation yield interesting implications for integrated decision making and policy in Illinois and elsewhere.

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• Publication date: September 2015
Source:Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular &amp; Integrative Physiology, Volume 187

Author(s): Thomas R. Binder, Constance M. O'Connor, Sarah H. McConnachie, Samantha M. Wilson, Michael A. Nannini, David H. Wahl, Steven J. Cooke

Over-winter mortality is an important selective force for warm-water fish (e.g., centrarchids) that live in temperate habitats. Inherent challenges faced by fish during winter may be compounded by additional stressors that activate the hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal axis, either before or during winter, leading to negative sub-lethal impacts on fish health and condition, and possibly reducing chance of survival. We used experimental cortisol manipulation to test the hypothesis that juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to semi-chronic elevation in cortisol prior to winter would experience higher levels of over-winter mortality, physiological alterations and impaired immune status relative to control and sham-treated bass. Over-winter survival in experimental ponds was high, averaging 83%, and did not differ among treatment groups. Over the study period, bass exhibited an average increase in mass of 19.4%, as well as a slight increase in Fulton's condition factor, but neither measure differed among groups. Hepatosomatic index in cortisol-treated bass was 23% lower than in control fish, suggesting lower energy status, but white muscle lipid content was similar across all groups. Lastly, there was no difference in spleen somatic index or parasite load among treatment groups, indicating no long-term immune impairment related to our cortisol manipulation. The current study adds to a growing body of literature on glucocorticoid manipulations where field-based findings are not consistent with laboratory-based conceptual understanding of multiple stressors. This suggests that field conditions may provide fish with opportunities to mitigate negative effects of some stressors.

• Publication date: 15 September 2015
Source:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 165

Author(s): Dana M. Labotka, Samuel V. Panno, Randall A. Locke, Jared T. Freiburg

Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of deep-seated saline groundwater provide valuable insight into the origin and evolving composition, water–rock interaction, and mixing potential of fossil brines. Such information may yield insight into intra- and interbasinal brine movement and relationships between brine evolution and regional groundwater flow systems. This investigation reports on the δ18O and δD composition and activity values, 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations, and major ion concentrations of the Cambrian-hosted brines of the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Ironton–Galesville Formation and discusses the evolution of these brines as they relate to other intracontinental brines. Brines in the Illinois Basin are dominated by Na–Ca–Cl-type chemistry. The Mt. Simon and overlying Ironton–Galesville brines exhibit total dissolved solids concentrations of ∼195,000mg/L and ∼66,270mg/L, respectively. The δD of brine composition of the Mt. Simon ranges from −34‰ to −22‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton–Galesville is ∼−53.2‰ (V-SMOW). The δ18O composition of the Mt. Simon brine ranges from −5.0‰ to −2.8‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton–Galesville brine is ∼−6.9‰ (V-SMOW). The 87Sr/86Sr values in the Mt. Simon brine range from 0.7110 to 0.7116. The less radiogenic Ironton–Galesville brine has an average 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.7107. Evaluation of δ18O and δD composition and activities and 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggests that the Mt. Simon brine is likely connate seawater and recirculating deep-seated brines that have been diluted with meteoric water and influenced by the dissolution of evaporites with a minimal halite contribution based on Cl/Br ratios. The Ironton–Galesville brine is also likely originally connate seawater that mixed with other brines and meteoric waters, including possibly Pleistocene glacial recharge. The Ca-excess vs. Na-deficiency comparison with the Basinal Fluid Line suggests the Mt. Simon and Ironton–Galesville brines have been influenced by the effects of albitization and plot very close to the Basinal Fluid Line. These Cambrian-hosted brines appear to have a different albitization history than other regional basin brines and a strong component of seawater. The Ironton–Galesville brine appears more geochemically associated with other Illinois Basin brines than the Mt. Simon brine which appears more geochemically conservative. Comparisons with other extrabasinal North American brines suggest that the Michigan basin brines are geochemically most similar to the Mt. Simon brines with the exception of the influence from carbonates in the Michigan Basin. Analyses of 87Sr/86Sr values in the Mt. Simon brine suggest that brine Sr has isotopically equilibrated with clay minerals in the Lower Mt. Simon and underlying bedrock formations and not with whole rock suggesting the influence of recirculating brines from the crystalline basement. Overall, the geochemistry of these Cambrian-hosted brines suggests an evolution from original seawater-like compositions. This investigation shows that intracratonic basins do not behave as closed systems but can be strongly affected by water–rock interaction and regional groundwater flow systems that circulate deep crystalline basement brines and brines from nearby basins.

• Publication date: January 2015
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 93

Author(s): Qing Ye, Xinlei Wang, Yongqi Lu

A carbonate-based CO2 absorption process is currently under development that involves crystallizing potassium bicarbonate from a potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solution to form slurry used for stripping CO2 at high pressure. Kinetics of the bicarbonate crystallization process was investigated using a laboratory mixed suspension, mixed product removal (MSMPR) reactor. Effects of the mean residence time, agitation speed, relative supersaturation level, crystallization temperature, and suspension density on nucleation and growth rates of the bicarbonate crystals were quantified. The observed crystal population density distribution featured a size-dependent growth pattern. A three-parameter kinetic model was used for bicarbonate crystallization, and model parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. Crystallization kinetics was applied to perform a preliminary analysis of the crystallizer design for the carbonate-based CO2 capture process.

• Publication date: 1 November 2015
Source:Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 279

Author(s): Shihan Zhang, Yongqi Lu

Development of enzyme-mediated solvents are regarded as a potential option to overcome the energy use disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent for post-combustion CO2 capture. In this work, the kinetics of CO2 absorption into a 20wt% potassium carbonate (PC) solution promoted with the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) was investigated using a stirred tank reactor. Experimental results showed no noticeable change in the intrinsic activity of the CA enzyme with increasing CO2 loading in PC solution. A rate-based mass transfer analysis was conducted using the enzymatic kinetics measured, and results revealed that in a packed-bed column, the CO2 absorption rates into a lean and rich PC solution with 3gL−1 CA were 50% lower and 2.2 times higher, respectively, than those into their 5M MEA counterparts. The liquid-phase mass transfer resistance was dominant for both PC- and MEA-based systems. Modeling results revealed the effective packing volume of the absorber with PC in the presence of 10gL−1 CA was only slightly larger than that with MEA for post-combustion CO2 capture.

• 11/26/2015
• 11/26/2015
• Publication date: April 2015
Source:Global and Planetary Change, Volume 127

Author(s): Bingjun Liu, Cuiliu Chen, Yanqing Lian, Junfan Chen, Xiaohong Chen

Using the daily precipitation and temperature data at 153 stations in the karst area of Southwest China from 1959 to 2009, the long-term change characteristics of wet and dry climatic conditions are analyzed by the Mann–Kendall test. This study shows that: 1) the annual average temperature has increased at 88% of the stations with an average rate of +0.16°C/10-year. This increase rate is greater than +0.30°C/10-year in the southeastern, northeastern, and western parts of the study region. Very warm days and abnormally warm days were seen increased at 47% and 63% of the stations, respectively. Very cool days and abnormally cool days in a year have reduced at respectively 94% and 95% of the stations; 2) no clear change trend was found for average annual precipitation over the entire area as a whole, but regional and seasonal changes were quite obvious. The annual total precipitation has decreased by −22.5mm/10-year in the central part but increased by +8.9mm/10-year in the western part of the region, and summer and winter seemed to become wetter while spring and autumn became drier. Although the number of rainy days in a year has decreased at almost 53% of the total stations with an average rate of −3.9days/10-year over the entire area, the number of extremely heavy rainy days has increased by +0.2, +0.4 and +0.4days/10-year in the southern Sichuan Province, the central part of Yunnan Province, and the northeastern Hubei Province, respectively; and 3) the extreme drought became more serious. The consecutive dry days has increased significantly at nearly 46% of the stations, especially in the western Guangxi Autonomous Region, the southern Guizhou Province, and the eastern Chongqing Municipality. The extreme drought remained at a high frequency at the beginning of the 21st century. It has shifted gradually from the eastern and western parts to the south-central part which is characterized by medium-high rocky desertification. Hopefully findings from this study will help for a better understanding of the impacts to some eminent geological hazards such as rocky desertification, increased frequency of drought and storms, and landslides in recent years.

• Publication date: November 2015
Source:Mycoscience, Volume 56, Issue 6

Author(s): Vincent P. Hustad, Andrew N. Miller

The genus Maasoglossum is examined using morphology, ecology, and molecular systematics of the internal transcribed spacer region and large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene, all of which support the placement of Maasoglossum among the basal members of Geoglossomycetes. The morphology of the genus extends the range of ascocarp and ascospore development in Geoglossomycetes. The ecology and conservational significance of the genus is discussed, a nomenclatural transfer of Geoglossum aseptatum to Maasoglossum is made, and an emended description of Maasoglossum is provided.

• Publication date: 2015
Source:Climate Risk Management, Volume 7

Author(s): Tonya Haigh, Eugene Takle, Jeffrey Andresen, Melissa Widhalm, J. Stuart Carlton, Jim Angel

The usefulness of climate information for agricultural risk management hinges on its availability and relevance to the producer when climate-sensitive decisions are being made. Climate information providers are challenged with the task of balancing forecast availability and lead time with acceptable forecast skill, which requires an improved understanding of the timing of agricultural decision making. Achieving a useful balance may also require an expansion of inquiry to include use of non-forecast climate information (i.e. historical climate information) in agricultural decision making. Decision calendars have proven valuable for identifying opportunities for using different types of climate information. The extent to which decision-making time periods are localized versus generalized across major commodity-producing regions is yet unknown, though, which has limited their use in climate product development. Based on a 2012 survey of more than 4770 agricultural producers across the U.S. Corn Belt region, we found variation in the timing of decision-making points in the crop year based on geographic variation as well as crop management differences. Many key decisions in the cropping year take place during the preceding fall and winter, months before planting, raising questions about types of climate information that might be best inserted into risk management decisions at that time. We found that historical climate information and long term climate outlooks are less influential in agricultural risk management than current weather, short term forecasts, or monthly climate projections, even though they may, in fact, be more useful to certain types of decision making.

• Publication date: 15 December 2015
Source:Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 440

Author(s): Howard J. Falcon-Lang, Nicholas J. Minter, Arden R. Bashforth, Martin R. Gibling, Randall F. Miller

We report Skolithos, Scoyenia and Mermia Ichnofacies from sub-humid tropical fluvial megafan deposits in the Lower Pennsylvanian Tynemouth Creek Formation of New Brunswick, Canada, and discuss their evolutionary and palaeoecological implications, especially regarding the colonization of continental freshwater/terrestrial environments. The Skolithos Ichnofacies comprises annelid/arthropod spreite in the upper storey of a fluvial channel. The Scoyenia Ichnofacies comprises tetrapod tracks, arthropleurid trackways, and shallow annelid/arthropod burrows in active/abandoned fluvial channels and rapidly aggrading levees/splays in proximal interfluve areas. The Mermia Ichnofacies comprises abundant xiphosuran trackways, along with diverse traces of other arthropods, annelids, mollusks, and fish, in shallow freshwater lakes, ponds, and coastal bays in slowly aggrading distal interfluve areas. Transitional Mermia/Scoyenia Ichnofacies comprise tetrapod, mollusk and annelid/arthropod traces in coastal bay deposits on the distal edge of the megafan. These trace fossil suites (1) provide the clearest documentation yet of the mid-Carboniferous diversification event, when tropical continental environments became more densely populated; (2) suggest that euryhaline visitors (xiphosurans, microconchids, and other taxa) from open marine settings played a key role in this episode of freshwater colonization; and (3) provide empirical support for the “Déjà vu Effect”, the evolutionary concept that new or empty ecospace, recurrent in spatially and temporally variable environments, is colonized by simple ichnocoenoses.

• Publication date: 19 March 2015
Source:Quaternary International, Volume 362

Author(s): L.M.A.L. Ribeiro, A.O. Sawakuchi, H. Wang, W. Sallun Filho, L. Nogueira

Robust chronologies for Quaternary fluvial carbonate sediments (tufas) from Brazil are still challenging. We obtain Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) ages of Brazilian tufa deposits using the Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) dose protocol applied to single grains and multigrain aliquots of quartz extracted from tufa matrix. Additionally, radiocarbon (14C) ages were obtained for the carbonate matrix and organic matter from tufas. The methodology was applied in samples from tufa deposits in southwestern and southeastern regions with Quaternary carbonate deposition. Equivalent doses distributions have overdispersion between 19% and 81%, indicating that the studied samples comprise well bleached as well as poorly bleached sediments. The quartz grains extracted from the studied tufas show an OSL signal dominated by the fast component and reliable dose response curves, with saturation doses (2D 0) ranging from 35 to 210 Gy. Most of the samples has low radiation dose rates (0.40 ± 0.02 to 0.78 ± 0.05 Gy/ka), with variation in the water content due to compaction and matrix recrystallization, being the major factors that could induce dose rate changes through time. Hard tufa samples with intense carbonate cementation show quartz OSL ages from 51.9 ± 4.8 to 150.3 ± 35.9 years. These ages are much older than the radiocarbon ages of the carbonate matrix and organic matter. The OSL ages of soft tufa samples related with the active fluvial system ranged from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 5.5 ± 0.4 years and are in the same interval of radiocarbon ages presented in the previous works. We interpret that carbonate recrystallization or uptake of organic matter after tufa formation are responsible for the younger radiocarbon ages compared to quartz OSL ages in the older tufa samples. For these samples, age differences vary up to tens of thousands years between deposition of quartz grains and the last episode of carbonate recrystallization or organic matter uptake. Consequently we believe that the obtained OSL ages are the best estimates for the starting deposition time of the studied tufa samples.

• Publication date: December 2015
Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 110

Author(s): Matthew I.M. Louder, Michael P. Ward, Wendy M. Schelsky, Mark E. Hauber, Jeffrey P. Hoover

Brood-parasitic offspring sexually (mis)imprinting on the foster parents is considered one of the greatest constraints to the evolution of interspecific avian brood parasitism. While most nonparasitic juvenile birds learn the behaviours and mate choice preferences from their own parents, social parasites must avoid misimprinting on their host species' phenotype in order to accurately recognize conspecifics. One possible mechanism to assure accurate species recognition by juvenile parasites is to begin to associate with adult parasitic conspecifics, known as the ‘first contact’ scenario, whereby adult female parasites facilitate the dispersal of their offspring away from hosts, thus providing accurate referents for conspecific recognition. Using an automated radiotelemetry system, we determined the presence or absence (every 1–2min during three breeding seasons; 516 315 search occasions) of radiotagged parasitic adult female brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, and compared their departures from a forest study site with those of genetic offspring or experimentally transplanted (nonrelated) juvenile cowbirds within the female's egg-laying range. Contrary to our predictions, we found no support for the facilitation of juvenile cowbird dispersal by adult female cowbirds. Juvenile cowbirds typically were not located within their mother's home range when departing the forest and, likewise, departure events for natal and experimentally transplanted juveniles (&lt;2%) did not overlap temporally with the departure of the genetically assigned mother or with the departure of other local radiotagged female cowbirds. Surprisingly, we found that juvenile cowbirds primarily departed from the host's territory at sunset, when adult female cowbirds are infrequently present within the forest. Our results suggest that the solitary nocturnal roosting behaviour of juvenile cowbirds may facilitate independence from their hosts, thus minimizing the risk of misimprinting on heterospecific phenotypes. This strategy may also indirectly promote conspecific interactions, providing further evidence for the importance of independent spatial and social preferences of hosts and brood parasites in the evolution of avian brood parasitism.

• Publication date: December 2015
Source:Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 105, Part A

Author(s): Xiang Zheng, Zhenxing Zhang, Dawei Yu, Xiaofen Chen, Rong Cheng, Shang Min, Jiangquan Wang, Qingcong Xiao, Jihua Wang

Treating and reusing industrial wastewater is one of many means to improve water supply capacity, especially within developing countries. In the past 15 years, remarkable progress has been achieved on the commercial applications of membrane technology in China. The membranes demand in China exceeded 30billionyuan (US\$ 4.8 billion) in 2010, amounting for about 15% of the world total. However, the sate-of-the-art of membrane applications in industrial wastewater treatment is not well understood and documented. This study performs a national survey of membrane plants and membrane manufacturers to investigate the characteristics of membrane technology applications for industrial wastewater treatment to increase water supply in China. The data obtained from the survey of membrane plants were confirmed with the survey of membrane manufacturers. It is aimed to provide comprehensive information of membrane technology applications for industrial wastewater treatment in China to guild the future development of the same kind of applications. The results indicate that 6.7millionm3 of wastewater per day (2.4billionm3 per year) treatment capacity applies membrane technology. 580 membrane plants have been successfully applied in practice for different industrial wastewater treatment. Petrochemical, power generation, and steel industries account for the majority of membrane technology applications, from both of number of membrane plants and treatment capacity. Northern Chinese provinces which are rich in coal, crude petroleum, and ferrous ore but scarce in water resources have seen the most of membrane practices. Water withdrawal for the power generation industry decreased substantially recently, as water use and reuse efficiency has been improved due to wide applications of advanced wastewater treatment methods such as membrane technology. With increasingly stringent emission standards faced by industry and water resources shortages confronted with China, it is expected membrane technology will play key role to address water quality and quantity issues in China. Membrane market in China is expected to grow at a relative high annual rate of approximate 15% for the next decade. It is worthy to note that environmental impacts due to membrane technology applications for industrial wastewater treatment, including membrane pollution and high salinity water, shall be addressed.

• Publication date: 10 February 2015
Source:Thermochimica Acta, Volume 601

Author(s): Zengshe Liu, Brajendra K. Sharma, Sevim Z. Erhan, Atanu Biswas, Rongpeng Wang, Thomas P. Schuman

Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil (PSO)-based lubricants have been investigated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method. It was found that PSO samples have lower oxidative stability than their precursor, soybean oil. The main reason for the decreased stability is the generation of tertiary carbons during polymerization. By using antioxidant additives, the PSO samples responded very well and increased their onset temperature (OT) by 70–80°C. Thermogravimetric analyses have been performed on the PSO samples and it was observed that they are thermally stable at temperatures up to 250°C. Cold flow property data shows that the PSO samples are good for use in formulating high temperature lubricants. Two model compounds which have terminal double bonds, triacyl-10-undecenoate and allyl 10-undecenoate, have been polymerized. The oxidation stability of these two compounds was investigated by the PDSC method and compared to that of the PSO samples. This study will help us understand the relationships between oxidation stability and molecular structure of PSO-based lubricants. In addition, oxidation stability data of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were used in helping to explain the oxidation stability results of the PSO samples.

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• Publication date: Available online 14 November 2015
Source:Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry

Author(s): J.J. Pienaar, Johan Paul Beukes, Pieter Gideon Van Zyl, C.M.B. Lehmann, J. Aherne

This chapter gives an overview of sampling ambient air using passive (also termed diffusive) samplers. The use of this type of sampler in ambient air monitoring has become very popular due to the simplicity and convenience in terms of its deployment. Although the use of these samplers requires the back up of a good analytical laboratory for preparation and analysis, the site operational requirements are very basic. The popularity of passive sampling is strongly linked to the fact that it can be easily deployed at remote and/or high risk environments and is less susceptible to damage or theft. These samplers have added advantages in that they are small in size, light in weight, silent in operation, cost effective and do not require any electricity or field calibration. They can also easily be deployed by non-specialists which make the spatial and temporal collection of data over long time periods possible. The basic principles, sampler network design, methodology, quality assurance and a few case studies are discussed.

• Publication date: 15 April 2015
Source:Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 424

Author(s): Larry F. Rinehart, Spencer G. Lucas, Lawrence Tanner, W. John Nelson, Scott D. Elrick, Dan S. Chaney, William A. DiMichele

Natural molds of 165 stems were found in life position in a 1m-thick sandstone bed, lower Permian (Wolfcampian), Sangre de Cristo Formation, northern New Mexico. The sandstone represents a single flood event of a river sourced in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Most of the flood-buried plants survived and resumed growth. The stem affinities are uncertain, but they resemble coniferophytic gymnosperms, possibly dicranophylls. Stem diameters (N=135) vary from 1 to 21cm, with three strongly overlapping size classes. Modern forest studies predict a monotonically decreasing number (inverse square law) of individuals per size class as diameter increases. This is not seen for fossil stems ≤6cm diameter, reflecting biases against preservation, exposure, and observation of smaller individuals. Stems ≥6cm diameter obey the predicted inverse square law of diameter distribution. Height estimates calculated from diameter-to-height relationships of modern gymnosperms yielded heights varying from ~0.9m to &gt;8m, mean of ~3m. Mean stand density is approximately 2 stems/m2 (20,000 stems/hectare) for all stems &gt;1cm diameter. For stems &gt;7.5cm or &gt;10cm diameter, density is approximately 0.24 stems/m2 (2400 stems/hectare) and 0.14 stems/m2 (1400 stems/hectare). Stem spatial distribution is random (Poisson). Mean all-stem nearest-neighbor distance (NND) averages 36cm. Mean NND between stems &gt;7.5cm and &gt;10cm diameter is approximately 1.02m and 1.36m. NND increases in approximate isometry with stem diameter, indicating conformation to the same spatial packing rules found in extant forests and other fossil forests of varying ages. Nearest-neighbor distance distribution passes statistical testing for normality, but with positive skew, as often seen in extant NND distributions. The size-frequency distribution of the stems is similar to those of Jurassic, early Tertiary, and extant woodlands; the early Permian woodland distribution line has the same slope, but differs in that the overall size range increases over time (Cope's rule). The early Permian woodland is self-thinning; its volume versus density relationship shows a self-thinning exponent between −1.25 and −1.5, within the range seen in some extant plant stands (−1.21 to −1.7).

• Publication date: February 2016
Source:Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 54

Author(s): Bidhya Kunwar, H.N. Cheng, Sriram R Chandrashekaran, Brajendra K Sharma

The thermal and catalytic processes of converting waste plactics into fuels are promising techniques to eliminate the refuse which otherwise is harmful to the enivironment, and decrease the dependence on fossil fuels. Thermal degradation decomposes plastic into three fractions: gas, crude oil, and solid residue. Crude oil from non-catalytic pyrolysis is usually composed of higher boiling point hydrocarbons. The optimization of conversion parameters such as the choice of catalyst, reactor design, pyrolysis temperature, and plastic-to-catalyst ratio plays a very important role in the efficient generation of gasoline and diesel grade fuel. The use of a catalyst for thermal conversion lowers the energy required for conversion, and the catalyst choice is important for efficient fuel production. The suitable selection of catalysts can increase the yield of crude oil with lower hydrocarbon content. Co-pyrolysis of plastics with coal or shale oil improves crude oil quality by decreasing its viscosity. A large number of publications have appeared on various processes, and continued improvements and/or innovations are expected in the future. Further investigations on the catalytic systems are required in order to advance the field, particularly to enhance the added value of fuels and to minimize the use of energy. This review aims to provide both the highlights of the remarkable achievements of this field and the milestones that need to be achieved in the future.

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• Publication date: March 2015
Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 45

Author(s): Loren Merrill, Jennifer L. Grindstaff

Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds, not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function.

• Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C. writer Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C. by Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C. published by Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2012
(AN 85351848)
America: History & Life
• Publication date: October 2015
Source:Environmental Pollution, Volume 205

Author(s): Yonghong Zou, Lixia Wang, Erik R. Christensen

This work intended to explain the challenges of the fingerprints based source apportionment method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment, and to illustrate a practical and robust solution. The PAH data detected in the sediment cores from the Illinois River provide the basis of this study. Principal component analysis (PCA) separates PAH compounds into two groups reflecting their possible airborne transport patterns; but it is not able to suggest specific sources. Not all positive matrix factorization (PMF) determined sources are distinguishable due to the variability of source fingerprints. However, they constitute useful suggestions for inputs for a Bayesian chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis. The Bayesian CMB analysis takes into account the measurement errors as well as the variations of source fingerprints, and provides a credible source apportionment. Major PAH sources for Illinois River sediments are traffic (35%), coke oven (24%), coal combustion (18%), and wood combustion (14%).

### Teaser

A Bayesian CMB model combined with PMF is a practical and credible fingerprints based PAH source apportionment method.

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• Publication date: November 2015
Source:Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 104, Part A

Author(s): Qianxin Gu, Yang Chen, Robert Pody, Rong Cheng, Xiang Zheng, Zhenxing Zhang

Tianjin is a large, rapidly growing urban center in northern China. This region has a semi-arid climate and limited water resources. Tianjin has a thriving economy and a growing population with a substantial and growing water need. Efficient use of limited water resources is critical to its continued growth. While the development of new water sources is ongoing, the reclamation of existing water can provide a substantial contribution to meeting the water needs of the region. A positive attitude by the public toward the use of reclaimed water is critical to the full development and utilization of this resource. The present study examines public knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward water resources, with a focus on the use of reclaimed water as gaged by a survey. Survey results indicate that the general public is aware that water resources are limited, but is relatively unaware of where their water comes from, which sectors are the largest water consumers and what happens to the water after it has been used. Further, public awareness of the need to conserve water is relatively low. Reclaimed water is currently used by 54% of the population. The public is highly receptive to the use of reclaimed water, but not for domestic use and potable use. Analysis of the survey results indicates a correlation between people's social and economic background, and their attitudes toward the use of reclaimed water. People with a higher education and income level are more inclined to use reclaimed water and are more willing to pay for it. The study makes recommendations for improving the receptivity of the public toward the use of reclaimed water.

• Publication date: March 2015
Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 16

Author(s): Jeffrey S. Pigati, John P. McGeehin, Daniel R. Muhs, David A. Grimley, Jeffrey C. Nekola

Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1–5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon (Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa.

• Mazrim, Robert F. writer Mazrim, Robert F. by Mazrim, Robert F. published by Mazrim, Robert F.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 04/01/2011
(AN 65100783)
America: History & Life
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• Publication date: August 2015
Source:International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 39

Author(s): Qing Ye, Xinlei Wang, Yongqi Lu

Approximately 50 amine-based aqueous solvent blends of absorption accelerators (monoamines or polyamines) and regeneration promoters [N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCA) or 2-(diethylamino) ethanol (DEEA)] were investigated in a screening study to help develop a novel phase transitional carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption process. Carbon dioxide absorption rates and phase transition behavior at 30°C and phase equilibrium behavior of CO2 desorption at 80°C were evaluated by using laboratory batch reactors. Relationships between the characteristic structures of solvent components and the observed absorption and desorption performance were qualitatively evaluated. Blending with either DMCA or DEEA, which have different hydrophobicities, only marginally affected the structure–performance relationship of the derived solvent blends. Phase transitions occurred only in solvent blends containing polyamine accelerators. Most polyamine+DEEA solvents showed higher CO2 loading capacities at 30°C but lower equilibrium pressures of CO2 at 80°C than did polyamine+DMCA solvents. TETA+DEEA was identified as the most favorable solvent blend in the screening study. Results also suggested that the biphasic solvents with amine accelerators containing 3–4N and 4–6C atoms generally exhibited favorable absorption and desorption performance without major operational concerns.

• Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E. writer Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E. by Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E. published by Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2010
(AN 56673017)
America: History & Life
• Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015
Source:Journal of Great Lakes Research

Author(s): Austin Happel, Joshua Lafountain, Sara Creque, Jacques Rinchard, Tomas Höök, Harvey Bootsma, John Janssen, David Jude, Sergiusz Czesny

On-going ecosystem alterations within Lake Michigan have drastically transformed species interactions and food-web assembly. Description of trophic interactions across broad spatial regions is likely necessary to fully appreciate the structure of this emerging food web. Spottail shiners, Notropis hudsonius, are numerically abundant in the nearshore zone of Lake Michigan, but their trophic interactions are under-described. To that end, we described fatty acid profiles of spottail shiner through spring, summer, and fall across western and eastern shorelines of Lake Michigan's southern basin. Fatty acids, used as dietary tracers, suggested a shift from benthic-based diets in spring to more pelagic-associated diets in summer and a reversal in fall. When time lag of fatty acid accumulation is accounted for in interpretations, diets likely follow spring plankton and summer/fall benthic invertebrate maxima. Fatty acid profiles also indicated differences in diet composition based on geographic location, with benthic tracers more prevalent among spottail shiner inhabiting the western shoreline. These interpretations were generally supported by stomach content data, with high Chironomidae consumption in spottail shiners from western waters. The presence of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Odonata in spottail shiner stomach contents throughout the lake highlights its reliance on nearshore and potentially inshore areas. This study offers one of the most spatially broad depiction of spottail shiner foraging habits in Lake Michigan.

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• Publication date: 1 December 2015
Source:Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 129

Author(s): Mark G. Macklin, Irina P. Panyushkina, Willem H.J. Toonen, Claudia Chang, Perry A. Tourtellotte, Geoff A.T. Duller, Hong Wang, Maarten A. Prins

In comparison to Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming in Central Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a multi-disciplinary research project was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken investigations of Holocene human adaptations to changing hydromorphic regimes in the Tien Shan piedmont region, Central Asia. Fluvial geochronologies have been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years using Optically Stimulated Luminescence and 14C dating, and are compared with human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the medieval period. Phases of Late Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradation at c. 17,400–6420, 4130–2880 and 910–500 cal. BC and between the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were coeval with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes. Entrenchment and floodplain soil development (c. 2880–2490 cal. BC and cal. AD 1300–1640) coincided with warmer and drier conditions. Prior to the modern period, floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400 cal. BC – cal. AD 1) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds. This period of agricultural expansion corresponds to a phase of reduced flooding, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan Mountains. Late Iron age agriculturists appear to have been opportunistic by exploiting a phase of moderate flows within an alluvial fan environment, which contained a series of partially entrenched distributary channels that could be easily ‘engineered’ to facilitate floodwater farming. Holocene climate change was therefore not a proximate cause for the development and demise of this relatively short-lived (c. 200 years) period of Iron Age farming. River dynamics in the Tien Shan piedmont are, however, strongly coupled with regional hydroclimatic fluctuations, and they have likely acted locally as both ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors for riparian agriculturists.

• Publication date: October 2015
Source:Fungal Ecology, Volume 17

Author(s): Matthew C. Allender, Daniel B. Raudabaugh, Frank H. Gleason, Andrew N. Miller

Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is a serious emerging fungal pathogen of North American-endemic and captive snakes. We provide a detailed literature review, introduce new ecological and biological information and consider aspects of O. ophiodiicola that need further investigation. The current biological evidence suggests that this fungus can persist as an environmental saprobe in soil, as well as colonizing living hosts. Not unlike other emerging fungal pathogens, many fundamental questions such as the origin of O. ophiodiicola, mode of transmission, environmental influences, and effective treatment options still need to be investigated.

• Pauketat, Timothy R. writer Pauketat, Timothy R. by Pauketat, Timothy R. published by Pauketat, Timothy R.
Title: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World
Author(s): Pauketat, Timothy R.
Source: CAMBRIDGE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 25 (4): 909-911 NOV 2015
Document Type: Book Review
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• Publication date: 1 October 2015
Source:Minerals Engineering, Volume 81

Author(s): Hafiz H. Salih, Lixia Wang, Vinod Patel, Vasudevan Namboodiri, Kishore Rajagopalan

The feasibility of dewatering coal tailings slurry by forward osmosis (FO) membrane process was investigated in this research. A prototype cell was designed and used for the dewatering tests. A cellulosic FO membrane (Hydration Technology Innovations, LLC, Albany, OR) was used for the dewatering studies due to its high fouling resistance. Representative samples of coal tailings slurry were collected from the thickener outflow at American Coal Company (Galatia, Illinois). Characterization studies were conducted to obtain particle size distribution (PSD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and the solids content of the slurry. The impact of the slurry properties such as solids weight percent, osmotic pressure, and particle size on the dewatering rates was determined. Furthermore, the impact of slurry conditioning by the addition of flocculant and gypsum on the rate and extent of dewatering was also investigated. Dewatering to a total solids content of more than seventy weight percent from an initial solids content of approximately thirty percent was achieved in all cases. The dewatering rate and extent were found to be a function of particle size, particle shape, TDS content, and mixing. The membrane material was shown to withstand repeated use over a period of thirty trials without deterioration of performance. The results obtained from this research suggest that osmotic dewatering of coal refuse slurry is feasible.

• Publication date: November 2015
Source:Biological Conservation, Volume 191

Author(s): Jordan Jessop, Greg Spyreas, Geoffrey E. Pociask, Thomas J. Benson, Michael P. Ward, Angela D. Kent, Jeffrey W. Matthews

Land management decisions frequently involve choices that reflect tradeoffs among ecosystem services. These tradeoffs are not always apparent, and land managers unknowingly may make decisions that diminish the value of some services while enhancing the value of others. Offset policies, such as wetland mitigation in the United States, rely on the assumption that ecosystems can be restored to provide a full suite of services. Wetlands provide many ecosystem services such as water quality maintenance, carbon storage, flood abatement, and biodiversity support. Our objectives were to describe tradeoffs among ecosystem services in mitigation wetlands and identify abiotic and biotic drivers underlying these tradeoffs. We measured denitrification potential, organic matter decomposition, herbaceous biomass, and soil organic content as indicators of nutrient storage and removal services in 30 mitigation wetlands in Illinois, USA. Additionally, we estimated surface-water storage potential, and, since wetlands provide valuable biodiversity support, we determined the species composition of plant, anuran, and avian communities. We found a positive relationship among biodiversity indicators for different taxa. Denitrification potential and surface-water storage potential were positively correlated. However, there was a tradeoff between biodiversity support and nutrient cycling processes; soil organic matter, biomass, decomposition rates, and potential denitrification were greater at less biodiverse sites. Our findings indicate that optimizing restored wetlands for nutrient storage and removal may come at the expense of biodiversity. It is unrealistic to expect all services to be maximized at a restoration site. Therefore, restoration practitioners should prioritize services based on needs and opportunities given local and watershed contexts.

• Branstner, Mark C. writer Branstner, Mark C. by Branstner, Mark C. published by Branstner, Mark C.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2012
(AN 85351843)
America: History & Life
• Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
Source:Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Author(s): Sarah E. Bush, Jason D. Weckstein, Daniel R. Gustafsson, Julie Allen, Emily DiBlasi, Scott M. Shreve, Rachel Boldt, Heather R. Skeen, Kevin P. Johnson

Songbirds host one of the largest, and most poorly understood, groups of lice: the Brueelia-complex. The Brueelia-complex contains nearly one-tenth of all known louse species (Phthiraptera), and the genus Brueelia has over 300 species. To date, revisions have been confounded by extreme morphological variation, convergent evolution, and periodic movement of lice between unrelated hosts. Here we use Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (EF-1α) gene fragments to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among 333 individuals within the Brueelia-complex. We show that the genus Brueelia, as it is currently recognized, is paraphyletic. Many well-supported and morphologically unified clades within our phylogenetic reconstruction of Brueelia were previously described as genera. These genera should be recognized, and the erection of several new genera should be explored. We show that four distinct ecomorphs have evolved repeatedly within the Brueelia-complex, mirroring the evolutionary history of feather-lice across the entire order. We show that lice in the Brueelia-complex, with some notable exceptions, are extremely host specific and that the host family associations and geographic distributions of these lice are significantly correlated with our understanding of their phylogenetic history. Several ecological phenomena, including phoresis, may be responsible for the macroevolutionary patterns in this diverse group.

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• Publication date: September 2015
Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 138

Author(s): Linda S. Prokopy, Chad E. Hart, Raymond Massey, Melissa Widhalm, Jenna Klink, Jeffrey Andresen, James Angel, Thomas Blewett, Otto C. Doering, Roger Elmore, Benjamin M. Gramig, Patrick Guinan, Beth L. Hall, Atul Jain, Cody L. Knutson, Maria Carmen Lemos, Lois Wright Morton, Dev Niyogi, Rebecca Power, Martha D. Shulski, Carol X. Song, Eugene S. Takle, Dennis Todey

In the Midwestern United States, where a third of the world's maize crop is grown, there are few decision support tools available to help farmers and their advisors plan for an uncertain climatic future. Developing tools that are actually useful and usable to agricultural decision makers necessitates an interdisciplinary team of climate scientists, agronomists, computer scientists, and social scientists. With such diversity come varying levels of engagement (e.g. co-project director, student, technician, etc.) and experience working with farmers and/or serving in an official Extension capacity. Therefore working together to address this challenging issue is not straight-forward. This paper reviews how a survey of a large interdisciplinary team working on developing decision support tools to ensure resilient maize production in this region identified differences between team members and helped improve team functioning and communication. Specifically the team survey revealed some important differences in how team members perceive farmers' use of climate information, the types of decisions that should be addressed with a tool, and how such tools should function. These differences can be primarily explained by disciplinary background and project role and have provided valuable opportunities to learn from each other and build consensus on decision support tools developed. The survey as a feed-back tool complements other team communication approaches and reminds the team of the need for continuous communication and frequent discussion of assumptions.

• Fishel, Richard L. writer Fishel, Richard L. by Fishel, Richard L. published by Fishel, Richard L.
Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.); 10/01/2012
(AN 85351849)
America: History & Life
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