Recent Publications, Reports, and more from the Prairie Research Institute

This list includes recent external publications (e.g., journal articles) authored by institute staff, recent items published by the Institute's Divisions, recent technical reports, and recent dissertations and theses from students whose graduate advisor was an Institute staff member.   For complete catalogs of in-house publications and staff bibliographies of external publications by Division, please see the Institute Publications page on the Prairie Research Institute Library website.

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Recent Publications, Reports, and more from the Prairie Research Institute

  • NOLAN, DAVID J. writer NOLAN, DAVID J. by NOLAN, DAVID J. published by NOLAN, DAVID J.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784994)
    Academic Search Premier
  • MAZRIM, ROBERT writer MAZRIM, ROBERT by MAZRIM, ROBERT published by MAZRIM, ROBERT
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784988)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: March 2014
    Source:Atmospheric Environment, Volume 85

    Author(s): Martin R. Risch , Donna M. Kenski , David A. Gay

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg emissions and areas with high average weekly Hg wet deposition. In a statistical analysis, relatively strong, positive correlations in the wet deposition of Hg and sulfate were shown for co-located NADP Hg-monitoring and acid-rain monitoring sites in the Region. This finding indicated that efficiency in regional Hg monitoring can be improved by adding new Hg monitoring to existing NADP acid-rain monitoring sites. Implementation of the GLAMM network design will require Hg-wet-deposition monitoring to be: (a) continued at 12 MDN sites active in 2013 and (b) restarted or added at 9 NADP sites where it is absent in 2013. Ongoing discussions between the states in the Great Lakes Region, the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (a regional planning entity), the NADP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey are needed for coordinating the GLAMM network.





  • 4/18/2014
  • Publication date: October 2013
    Source:Cretaceous Research, Volume 45

    Author(s): Nathan Barling , Sam W. Heads , David M. Martill

    A new genus and species of small (3.5 mm excluding ovipositor) parisitoid wasp is described from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation Lagerstätte of Brazil. Parviformosus wohlrabeae gen. et sp. nov. is known from a single female imago and is assigned to Pteromalidae. It is diagnosed by the robustness of the scutellum, the structure, size and positioning of the mesopleuron, the complexity of the propodeum–petiole junction and a posteriorly curved dorsal ‘lip’ on metasomal segment 4. At only 3.5 mm in length, P. wohlrabeae is the smallest fossil wasp from the Cretaceous of South America and the first Mesozoic representative of Pteromalidae.





  • DANIELS, STEPHANIE L.; MCELRATH, DALE L. writer DANIELS, STEPHANIE L.; MCELRATH, DALE L. by DANIELS, STEPHANIE L.; MCELRATH, DALE L. published by DANIELS, STEPHANIE L.; MCELRATH, DALE L.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785014)
    Academic Search Premier
  • FORTIER, ANDREW C. writer FORTIER, ANDREW C. by FORTIER, ANDREW C. published by FORTIER, ANDREW C.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785006)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A. writer Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A. by Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A. published by Marshall, Charla; Kaestle, Frederika A.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2013
    (AN 92620217)
    America: History & Life
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  • Lasemi, Yaghoob writer Lasemi, Yaghoob by Lasemi, Yaghoob published by Lasemi, Yaghoob
    Title: Central Illinois shows Siluro-Devonian oil potential
    Author(s): Lasemi, Yaghoob
    Source: OIL & GAS JOURNAL, 112 (3): 49-+ MAR 3 2014
    Document Type: Article
  • Kozuch, Laura writer Kozuch, Laura by Kozuch, Laura published by Kozuch, Laura
    Southeastern Archaeology; 07/01/2013
    (AN 89690048)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A. writer Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A. by Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A. published by Mazrim, Robert F.; Walthall, John A.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2012
    (AN 85351845)
    America: History & Life
  • 4/18/2014
  • Publication date: 2014
    Source:Insect Resistance Management

    Author(s): Joseph L. Spencer , Sarah A. Hughson , Eli Levine

    Insect Resistance to Crop Rotation Two species of Diabrotica have evolved resistance to crop rotation that involves planting the same primary crop every second year in the same location. Diabrotica barberi has adapted by extending egg diapause for more than one winter. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera has lost its fidelity for corn, Zea mays, during the oviposition period; eggs are laid in most fields of vegetation in the crop landscape. Both adaptations permit eggs to hatch in cornfields. D. v. virgifera has also evolved resistance to most other IPM tactics over the past 60 years, including one type of insecticidal corn. This chapter explores the diverse approaches to IPM and the role of insect behavior in resistance management.





  • Publication date: 14 June 2013
    Source:Desalination, Volume 319

    Author(s): Xinying Wang , Eric Duitsman , N. Rajagopalan , V.V. Namboodiri

    Commercially available reverse osmosis (RO) membranes – SW30HR, BW30, and AG – were chemically treated for use in forward osmosis (FO). Nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, ethanol, and ethanol–acid–water ternary solutions were employed for the treatment. All three membranes, after treatment by nitric acid, ethanol, and ethanol–acid–water solutions, demonstrated significant flux enhancement (as much as 40 times higher) compared to their untreated counterparts. The SW30HR membrane treated by ethanol showed the lowest reverse salt flux among the treated membranes. Extensive changes to the barrier layer of the SW30HR membrane after ethanol treatment were observed using ATR-FTIR, XPS, and contact angle measurements. It appears that the PVA coating of the SW30HR membrane was either partially or totally removed. The reduction/removal of the PVA layer in conjunction with higher wettability of the substrate induced by ethanol treatment appears responsible for the improved flux.





  • Takle, Eugene S.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Andresen, Jeffrey; et al. writer Takle, Eugene S.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Andresen, Jeffrey; et al. by Takle, Eugene S.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Andresen, Jeffrey; et al. published by Takle, Eugene S.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Andresen, Jeffrey; et al.
    Title: Climate Forecasts for Corn Producer Decision Making
    Author(s): Takle, Eugene S.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Andresen, Jeffrey; et al.
    Source: EARTH INTERACTIONS, 18 (): MAR 2014
    Document Type: Article
  • Publication date: 30 May 2013
    Source:International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 38, Issue 16

    Author(s): Hong Lu , Yongqi Lu , Massoud Rostam-Abadi

    A sorption-enhanced water–gas-shift reaction process (SEWGS) combines the WGS reaction and CO2 removal into a single process step in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. In the SEWGS, a solid sorbent is employed to capture the CO2 generated by the WGS reaction. A key technical issue for the SEWGS is to identify and develop sorbents that can capture CO2 under high pressure and high temperature syngas conditions and minimize or even eliminate the need for WGS catalysts. We present the results from a thermodynamic analysis and process simulation study that aimed to identify sorbents and optimal temperature windows to maximize the thermal efficiency of an IGCC + SEWGS plant. The results from the thermodynamic analysis identified two metal oxides, one silicate, three zirconates, and one titanate sorbents that are suitable for the SEWGS application. The results from the process simulation study revealed that the overall thermal efficiency of a 1187 MWth (thermal input) IGCC + SEWGS plant gasifying an Illinois coal, and using the seven sorbents selected from the thermodynamic analysis, was between 0.5 and 2.4 percentage points greater than that of a reference IGCC + Selexol plant.





  • Publication date: June 2014
    Source:Journal of Applied Geophysics, Volume 105

    Author(s): Ahmed Ismail , F. Brett Denny , Mohamed Metwaly

    We use the seismic shear-wave reflection and multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) methods to examine if the MASW profiling can be an alternative for the shear-wave reflection method for near-surface characterization at specific subsurface settings. The shear wave reflection method does not work well in noisy areas, takes longer time for data acquisition and requires excessive post acquisition processing compared to the MASW method. Two surveys were conducted using land streamer technology along two lines totaling 3.7km in southern Illinois. The reflection data were used to generate seismic reflection profiles. The stacking velocities along the reflection profiles were converted into interval velocities and mapped as 2D velocity images. The MASW data were used to generate continuous 2D shear-wave velocity (Vs ) profiles. The MASW and the stacking-derived interval velocity images provided a smeared image of the overlying sedimentary layers and did not image small-scale features, such as igneous intrusions and near-surface faults. However, the MASW 2D Vs profiles and the reflection profiles compared well in mapping the bedrock surface and the thickness of the overlying unconsolidated sediment. The results confirmed that the MASW method can be an alternative to the reflection method when the survey target and near-surface conditions allow.





  • Mazrim, Robert writer Mazrim, Robert by Mazrim, Robert published by Mazrim, Robert
    International Journal of Historical Archaeology; 12/01/2013
    (AN 90632189)
    America: History & Life
  • EMERSON, THOMAS E.; BOLES, STEVEN L. writer EMERSON, THOMAS E.; BOLES, STEVEN L. by EMERSON, THOMAS E.; BOLES, STEVEN L. published by EMERSON, THOMAS E.; BOLES, STEVEN L.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785001)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: 15 June 2013
    Source:Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 70

    Author(s): B. Brandon Curry , Leila M. Gonzales , Eric C. Grimm







  • Publication date: February 2014
    Source:International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 21

    Author(s): Scott M. Frailey







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  • Parez, Stanislav; Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael writer Parez, Stanislav; Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael by Parez, Stanislav; Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael published by Parez, Stanislav; Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael
    Title: Dielectric Properties of Water at Rutile and Graphite Surfaces: Effect of Molecular Structure
    Author(s): Parez, Stanislav; Predota, Milan; Machesky, Michael
    Source: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, 118 (9): 4818-4834 MAR 6 2014
    Document Type: Article
  • Publication date: March 2014
    Source:Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, Volume 110

    Author(s): Chia-Ching Chu , Weilin Sun , Joseph L. Spencer , Barry R. Pittendrigh , Manfredo J. Seufferheld

    RNA interference (RNAi) mediated crop protection against insect pests is a technology that is greatly anticipated by the academic and industrial pest control communities. Prior to commercialization, factors influencing the potential for evolution of insect resistance to RNAi should be evaluated. While mutations in genes encoding the RNAi machinery or the sequences targeted for interference may serve as a prominent mechanism of resistance evolution, differential effects of RNAi on target pests may also facilitate such evolution. However, to date, little is known about how variation of field insect populations could influence the effectiveness of RNAi treatments. To approach this question, we evaluated the effects of RNAi treatments on adults of three western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) populations exhibiting different levels of gut cysteine protease activity, tolerance of soybean herbivory, and immune gene expression; two populations were collected from crop rotation-resistant (RR) problem areas and one from a location where RR was not observed (wild type; WT). Our results demonstrated that RNAi targeting DvRS5 (a highly expressed cysteine protease gene) reduced gut cysteine protease activity in all three WCR populations. However, the proportion of the cysteine protease activity that was inhibited varied across populations. When WCR adults were treated with double-stranded RNA of an immune gene att1, different changes in survival among WT and RR populations on soybean diets occurred. Notably, for both genes, the sequences targeted for RNAi were the same across all populations examined. These findings indicate that the effectiveness of RNAi treatments could vary among field populations depending on their physiological and genetic backgrounds and that the consistency of an RNAi trait’s effectiveness on phenotypically different populations should be considered or tested prior to wide deployment. Also, genes that are potentially subjected to differential selection in the field should be avoided for RNAi-based pest control.

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  • Publication date: 1 August 2013
    Source:Electrochimica Acta, Volume 104

    Author(s): Junhua Jiang , John Scott , Andrzej Wieckowski

    Electrooxidation of formate on high-surface Pt black in alkaline media has been studied at varying temperature by means of cyclic voltammetry and stripping voltammetry. In the positive-going scans from 0.10 to 1.2V vs RHE, the formate oxidation produces three oxidation current peaks: (i) peak I (at potentials where the coverages of both surface hydrogen and oxygen-species are very low), (ii) peak II (exhibiting obvious potential shift from 0.66 to 0.51V upon increasing temperature from 20 to 80°C), and (iii) peak III (at higher potentials where a considerable formation of surface oxygen species commences). Both peaks I and II are closely correlated but they are independent of peak III. Among the three peaks, the temperature dependence of peak II is well in agreement with that of the stripping peak of a CO adlayer. These results suggest a triple-path reaction mechanism. Adsorption of formate onto Pt surfaces may result in formation of precursor adsorbates with different reactivity. Analogous to the reported dual-path mechanism, active precursor adsorbate is responsible for (i) a direct path involving the formate oxidation to CO2 (leading to peak I), and (ii) an indirect path involving the formation of surface CO and its further oxidation to CO2 (leading to peak II). An independent third path via oxidation of less-active precursor adsorbate to CO2 with adsorbed HCOO as the most likely intermediate accounts for peak III. All the oxidation reactions involved in the triple paths are accelerated by increasing reaction temperature with different apparent activation energies. At elevated temperature, diffusion-limited oxidation currents are attained. It is suggested that both the activities of surface OH and precursor adsorbates play a major role in mediating the reaction mechanism as well as participating in the formate oxidation.





  • Publication date: 15 March 2014
    Source:Geomorphology, Volume 209

    Author(s): Andrew J. Stumpf , Travis Ferbey , Alain Plouffe , John J. Clague , Brent C. Ward , Roger C. Paulen , Andrew B.G. Bush

    McClenagan (2013) presents a model to explain streamlined erosional residuals or drumlins on uplands and lowlands in the plateau region of central British Columbia, Canada. In this discussion paper, we note that McClenagan (2013) has not adequately discussed previous relevant work in the region, and we argue that additional analyses and evidence are required to substantiate this new model. The hypothesis offered for the origin of the plateau landscape, specifically catastrophic glaciofluvial activity, differs significantly from a model based on glacial erosion and deformation that has been developed from field-based research over the past six decades. We discuss four critical points relating to the proposed model: (1) the current geological model for the plateau region of central British Columbia; (2) theory of glacial dispersal; (3) existing hypotheses for the formation of drumlins and other glacial landforms; and (4) theoretical glacial erosion modeling. We further suggest that the model cannot be substantiated without sedimentological or morphological field evidence for water bodies argued to be the source of the proposed megaflood or megafloods.





  • KUEHN, STEVEN R. writer KUEHN, STEVEN R. by KUEHN, STEVEN R. published by KUEHN, STEVEN R.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784991)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: June 2013
    Source:Journal of Insect Physiology, Volume 59, Issue 6

    Author(s): Chang-Hyun Kim , Ephantus J. Muturi

    Stressful environmental conditions during mosquito larval development may enhance susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to viral pathogens. Although anti-viral defense system in mosquitoes remains uncertain, stress-related enhancement of mosquito susceptibility to viral pathogens may be due to alteration of signaling pathways such as the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. To test the influence of larval density and Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on mosquito Toll/Imd pathways, 100 or 200 Aedes aegypti larvae were reared in 2L of live oak (Quercus virginiana) leaf infusion and the adults were fed on SINV-infected (treatments) or non-infected (controls) bovine blood. SINV infection status and expression of genes encoding three antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin, diptericin), an iron-binding protein (transferrin), and four regulators of Toll/Imd pathways (caspar, cactus, Rel1A, Rel2) were quantified by RT-qPCR at 7 and 14days post blood meals. Irrespective of larval density, females incubated for 14days after an infectious blood meal had significantly higher SINV titers compared to females from low density treatments that were incubated for 7days. For both larval densities and time intervals, there was significant down-regulation of the Toll/Imd regulator genes in SINV-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. At day 7 post-infection, there was significant down-regulation of cecropin, defensin, diptericin and transferrin in SINV-infected mosquitoes at low larval density but this effect was only observed for diptericin at high larval density. These genes remained suppressed on day 14, except cecropin which was significantly up-regulated at both larval densities, and transferrin which was similar to controls at low larval density. We conclude that SINV infection suppresses Toll/Imd pathways, but high larval density enables SINV to attain maximum titers in Ae. aegypti much earlier compared to low density treatments despite the up-regulation of cecropin.

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  • Publication date: February 2014
    Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 130

    Author(s): Jeffrey J. Bara , Ephantus J. Muturi

    Mixed viral infections are ubiquitous in natural populations and may have significant but unpredictable biological and epidemiological consequences. These infections may be acquired simultaneously (coinfection) or result from two single infections at different time intervals (superinfection). This study investigated the effect of mixed infections of two mosquito-borne viruses, Sindbis (SINV) and La Crosse (LACV), on the replication of each virus in vertebrate baby hamster kidney (BHK) and invertebrate Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cell lines. SINV and LACV were inoculated onto confluent monolayers of each cell type either singly, simultaneously, or with a 2-h delay between single inoculations and titers for each virus were quantified by qRT-PCR. The titers for both viruses were significantly higher in BHK compared to C6/36 cells. Mixed infections suppressed replication of both viruses in BHK cells except for one superinfection treatment where inoculation of SINV ahead of LACV did not result in a reduction in SINV titer relative to single infection treatment. In C6/36 cells mixed infections had no effect on LACV replication, while coinfection enhanced SINV replication. These results demonstrate the potential for mixed viral infections to modify arbovirus transmission and pathogenesis.

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  • Publication date: December 2013
    Source:Bioresource Technology, Volume 149

    Author(s): Mai Pham , Lance Schideman , Brajendra K. Sharma , Yuanhui Zhang , Wan-Ting Chen

    This study investigated the effects of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) on the fate of bioactive compounds (BACs) often present with wet biosolids from wastewater, manure, or algae. Tracking radiolabeled 14C for two BACs showed that 60–79% of the carbon was transferred to the HTL raw oil product, and most of the rest was found in the aqueous product. In the presence of both swine manure and Spirulina biomass feedstocks, HTL provided essentially complete removal of three BACs when operated at 300°C for ⩾30min. Experiments with both natural transformation and high-efficiency transformation showed that HTL provided complete deactivation of antibiotic resistant genes for all tested HTL conditions (250–300°C, 15–60min reaction time). Thus, incorporating HTL into wastewater treatment systems can simultaneously produce valuable bio-crude oil, provide effective removal of BACs and disrupt the natural pathways for antibiotic resistant gene transfer from manure and wastewater biosolids to the environment.





  • Publication date: 15 October 2013
    Source:Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 128

    Author(s): Benjamin J. Beas , Loren M. Smith , Theodore G. LaGrange , Randy Stutheit

    Sedimentation from cultivated agricultural land use has altered the natural hydrologic regimes of depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. These alterations can negatively affect native wetland plant communities. Our objective was to determine if restored wetlands are developing plant communities similar to reference wetland conditions following hydrologic restoration. For this study, hydrology was restored via sediment removal. Thirty-four playa wetlands in reference, restored, and agricultural condition within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska were sampled in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness and more native, annual, and perennial species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands had similar exotic species richness compared to reference and agricultural wetlands; however, reference wetlands contained more than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands proportion of exotics was 3.5 and 2 times less than agricultural wetlands and reference wetlands respectively. In 2009, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness, more perennial species, and more native species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands contained a greater number and proportion of annuals than reference and agricultural wetlands. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that reference, restored, and agricultural wetlands are dominated by different plant species and guilds. Restored wetland plant communities do not appear to be acting as intermediates between reference and agricultural wetland conditions or on a trajectory to reach reference conditions. This may be attributed to differing seed bank communities between reference and restored wetlands, dispersal limitations of perennial plant guilds associated with reference wetland conditions, and/or management activities may be preventing restored wetlands from reaching reference status.





  • Baltus, Melissa R.; Baires, Sarah E. writer Baltus, Melissa R.; Baires, Sarah E. by Baltus, Melissa R.; Baires, Sarah E. published by Baltus, Melissa R.; Baires, Sarah E.
    Journal of Social Archaeology; 06/01/2012
    (AN 76333043)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: June 2014
    Source:Chemosphere, Volume 104

    Author(s): Jeffrey M. Levengood , David J. Soucek , Gregory G. Sass , Amy Dickinson , John M. Epifanio

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068mgkg−1) than in silver carp (0.035mgkg−1), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration’s (USFDA) action level (1ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332mgkg−1) than in bighead (0.281mgkg−1) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5mgkg−1 limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source.





  • 4/18/2014
  • Publication date: 20 May 2013
    Source:Journal of Hydrology, Volume 490

    Author(s): Bingjun Liu , Xiaohong Chen , Yanqing Lian , Lili Wu

    Rainfall distribution has become highly erratic due to climate change and intensive human activities. Hence, the estimation of rainfall distribution has an extraordinary significance in understanding the hydrological cycle and is crucial for water resources management. This paper presents a study on the large-scale spatial rainfall distribution in the Pearl River Basin of China using the information entropy theory and the fuzzy cluster analysis. The Directional Information Transfer Index (DITI) was used to describe the similarity between rainfall gaging stations, and the fuzzy cluster analysis was utilized to classify rainfall gaging stations into distribution zones with the proximity relation defined by the DITI. This research shows that the DITI integrates the rainfall feature at respective stations and the mutual influences among them. Further, the DITI-based fuzzy cluster analysis has a great advantage over the conventional pattern recognition method. Considering the unique temporal and spatial distribution characteristics, the DITI-based model combined with the fuzzy cluster analysis method provided more accurate classification of the rainfall distribution zones. Based on the monthly average rainfall data from 1959 to 2009 at 62 stations, the rainfall distribution in the Pearl River Basin is classified into 10 zones with their unique temporal and spatial distribution characteristics. The correct classification of rainfall distribution zones is crucial for the management and allocation of water resources in the Pearl River Delta to meet the increasing demand of domestic and industrial usage not only within the basin but also as a complementary source for Hong Kong.





  • Fishel, Richard L. writer Fishel, Richard L. by Fishel, Richard L. published by Fishel, Richard L.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2012
    (AN 85351847)
    America: History & Life
  • Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal writer Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal by Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal published by Marshall, Joel Michael; Krus, Anthony Michal
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2013
    (AN 92620212)
    America: History & Life
  • Publication date: 1 July 2013
    Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 110, Issues 3–4

    Author(s): Nohra Mateus-Pinilla , Hsin-Yi Weng , Marilyn O. Ruiz , Paul Shelton , Jan Novakofski

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer.





  • Simon, Mary L. writer Simon, Mary L. by Simon, Mary L. published by Simon, Mary L.
    Journal of Archaeological Science; 09/01/2011
    (AN 62596190)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Creamer, Winifred; Haas, Jonathan; Jakaitis, Edward; Holguin, Jesus writer Creamer, Winifred; Haas, Jonathan; Jakaitis, Edward; Holguin, Jesus by Creamer, Winifred; Haas, Jonathan; Jakaitis, Edward; Holguin, Jesus published by Creamer, Winifred; Haas, Jonathan; Jakaitis, Edward; Holguin, Jesus
    Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology; 07/01/2011
    (AN 63634436)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: 15 August 2013
    Source:Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volumes 258–259

    Author(s): Wei Zheng , Yonghong Zou , Xiaolin Li , Michael L. Machesky

    Irrigation with concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) wastewater on croplands has been identified as a major source discharging steroid hormones into the environment. To assess the potential risks on this irrigation practice, the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were systematically investigated in aqueous solutions blended with dairy wastewater. Dissipation of the conjugated estrogen was dominated by biodegradation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The half-lives for the biodegradation of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions from 15 to 45°C varied from 1.70 to 415d and 22.5 to 724d, respectively. Under the same incubation conditions, anaerobic degradation rates of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were significantly less than aerobic degradation rates, suggesting that this hormone contaminant may accumulate in anaerobic or anoxic environments. Three degradation products were characterized under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 25°C, with estrone-3-sulfate and 17α-estradiol identified as primary metabolites and estrone identified as a secondary metabolite. However, the major degradation mechanisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were distinctly different. For aerobic degradation, oxidation at position C17 of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate ring was a major degradation mechanism. In contrast, deconjugation of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate thio-ester bond at position C3 was a major process initiating degradation under anaerobic conditions.





  • 4/18/2014
  • WISSEMAN, SARAH U. writer WISSEMAN, SARAH U. by WISSEMAN, SARAH U. published by WISSEMAN, SARAH U.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785008)
    Academic Search Premier
  • HICKSON, ROBERT N. writer HICKSON, ROBERT N. by HICKSON, ROBERT N. published by HICKSON, ROBERT N.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784985)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: 25 January 2014
    Source:Fluid Phase Equilibria, Volume 362

    Author(s): Yudan Zhu , Luzheng Zhang , Xiaohua Lu , Linghong Lu , Ximing Wu

    The anomalous flow behavior of nanoconfined water is attracting considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pore wall interfacial properties on the flow behavior of water confined in a slit pore. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed on water molecules confined in slit pores. By moving the two pore walls to opposite directions, the confined water molecules were made in a directed flowing. The flow resistance of the water molecules was then analyzed at the nanoscale. Two Si(111) surfaces were used to construct the slit pore model. The interaction strength, ɛ Si-w, between the pore wall atom and water's oxygen atom was adjusted to represent different pore wall interfacial properties. A higher ɛ Si-w indicates a more hydrophilic pore wall interface. Simulation results show that for the studied cases, more hydrophilic pore walls leads to larger flow resistance of the confined water. At the molecular level, the friction between the pore wall and water molecules increases with increased hydrophilicity of pore walls and further hampers the flow of the confined water in the slit pore. Moreover, simulation results demonstrate that water molecules confined in the slits are layered. The increase in the hydrophilicity increases hydrogen bonds between water layers, thereby enhancing flow resistance arising from the water molecules themselves.





  • Publication date: April 2014
    Source:Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 38

    Author(s): Tamara F. Blett , Jason A. Lynch , Linda H. Pardo , Cindy Huber , Richard Haeuber , Richard Pouyat

    The development and use of critical loads of air pollutant deposition in the U.S. is gaining momentum, and recent research efforts in the U.S. have produced valuable data for calculating critical loads. Critical loads are used to quantify the levels of air pollutants that are expected to impact forest health, soil fertility, aquatic biota condition, and other ecosystem responses. In addition, model refinements for improving critical loads estimates, and maps for illustrating critical loads for acidification and nitrogen saturation and eutrophication resulting from excess nutrient nitrogen, have been developed at various scales. However, prior to the effort described here, no cohesive process existed to provide a national-scale critical loads database and maps as a unified product representing all U.S. ecosystems. The FOCUS (Focal Center Utility Study) Project was initiated to coordinate the development and implementation of a clear, consistent, repeatable process for calculating and mapping critical loads within the U.S. In the FOCUS Phase I Pilot Study, empirical and calculated critical loads data for the U.S. were synthesized from dozens of regional and national-scale monitoring networks, research projects and publically available databases following an approach similar to that used in Europe. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), through its International Cooperative Programme on Modelling and Mapping of Critical Levels & Loads and Air Pollution Effects, Risks and Trends (ICP-M&M) collects, analyzes and maps critical loads data. Countries participating in the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) use a Critical Loads “Focal Center” in each country to serve as the point of contact for submitting regional and national-scale critical loads data to the ICP-M&M. One of the purposes of this study was to develop a foundation for interacting with other Focal Centers by assembling critical loads data, creating a database, establishing modeling protocols, and developing infrastructure within the U.S to report and update critical loads on a national scale. Because the U.S. does not currently have an officially designated Focal Center, critical loads data were provided as an informal, unofficial submission to the Coordination Center for Effects (CCE) of the ICP-M&M in March 2011, in the interest of international cooperation and exchange of information on the effects of atmospheric deposition of pollutants on ecosystems. We envision that these data will enable U.S. scientists, land managers, and environmental policymakers to enter into a productive and meaningful dialogue within the US, and also with the international scientific community on methods for estimating, calculating, mapping, interpreting, and refining critical loads for the effects of acidification and excess nutrient nitrogen on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This paper describes the process used to develop national-scale critical loads in the U.S., summarizes the FOCUS Phase I approach and database development effort, and presents some initial national-scale critical loads mapping products.





  • Publication date: 1 December 2013
    Source:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 122

    Author(s): Samuel V. Panno , Keith C. Hackley , Randall A. Locke , Ivan G. Krapac , Bracken Wimmer , Abbas Iranmanesh , Walton R. Kelly

    Recently, brine samples from the Cambrian-age Mount Simon Formation (the deepest, most inaccessible sedimentary rock formation of the Illinois Basin) and the overlying Ironton–Galesville Formation were collected as part of a major research effort evaluating the feasibility of sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations. Halide and halide/cation ratios (especially Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios) from groundwater samples collected during this investigation suggest that the brines of the Cambrian-age strata formed by the evaporation of seawater well beyond the point of halite precipitation. The Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios, the presence of Mississippi-Valley-Type (MVT) ore mineralization in close proximity to the Illinois Basin, and the tectonic history of the region and the Illinois Basin suggest that components of ore-forming brines and perhaps crystalline basement brine are likely still present within the Mount Simon Formation. Halide and cation/halide ratio plots show that these brines have mixed with and have been diluted by subaerially evaporated seawater, seawater and dilute groundwater. Movement of brines out of the Mount Simon Formation and/or exchange with brines of other formations is constrained by the overlying, siltstone- and shale-rich Eau Claire Formation, a low-permeability layer. The most plausible interpretation of the halide and halide/cation ratio data is that the brines of the Cambrian-age strata were introduced to the Illinois Basin from outside of the basin, perhaps when the Illinois Basin was connected to the Arkoma (Oklahoma and Arkansas) and Black Warrior Basins (Alabama and Mississippi) via the Reelfoot Rift during Cambrian and early Ordovician time. In addition, the presence of some percentage of high NaCl, low Cl/Br brines from the crystalline basement is suggested given the geochemical relationships of the halide and cation/halide ratios and the tectonic history of the Illinois Basin. Finally, halide and cation/halide ratios determined by this investigation, and regional geochemical evidence and hydrogeologic modeling (by others) suggest that the brines of these strata probably were affected by regional hydrothermal activity during Permian time that was responsible for the MVT ore deposits of the Midwestern U.S. Thus, the brines of the deepest strata of the Illinois Basin constitute a different, more complex type of fluid than those found elsewhere in the basin. Halide and halide-cation ratios suggest that these deep brines are dominated by residual evaporitic brine (possibly originating as ore-forming brines) with dilution by seawater and dilute groundwater. Other components may include subaerially evaporated seawater and crystalline basement brines.





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  • Publication date: 15 December 2013
    Source:Electrochimica Acta, Volume 113

    Author(s): Junhua Jiang , Lei Zhang , Xinying Wang , Nancy Holm , Kishore Rajagopalan , Fanglin Chen , Shuguo Ma

    Woody biochar monolith with ultra-high carbon content and highly ordered macropores has been prepared via one-pot pyrolysis and carbonization of red cedar wood at 750°C without the need of post-treatment. Energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the original biochar has a carbon content of 98wt% with oxygen as the only detectable impurity and highly ordered macroporous texture characterized by alternating regular macroporous regions and narrow porous regions. Moreover, the hierarchically porous biochar monolith has a high BET specific surface area of approximately 400m2 g−1. We have studied the monolith material as supercapacitor electrodes under acidic environment using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the original biochar electrodes have a potential window of about 1.3V and exhibit typical rectangular-shape voltammetric responses and fast charging–discharging behavior with a gravimetric capacitance of about 14Fg−1. Simple activation of biochar in diluted nitric acid at room temperature leads to 7 times increase in the capacitance (115Fg−1). Because the HNO3-activation slightly decreases rather than increases the BET surface area of the biochar, an increase in the coverage of surface oxygen groups is the most likely origin of the substantial capacitance improvement. This is supported by EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman measurements. Preliminary life-time studies show that biochar supercapacitors using the original and HNO3-activated electrodes are stable over 5000 cycles without performance decays. These facts indicate that the use of woody biochar is promising for its low cost and it can be a good performance electrode with low environmental impacts for supercapacitor applications.





  • Publication date: March 2014
    Source:Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 40, Issue 1

    Author(s): Jody A. Peters , Matthew J. Cooper , Sara M. Creque , Matthew S. Kornis , Jeffrey T. Maxted , William L. Perry , Frederick W. Schueler , Thomas P. Simon , Christopher A. Taylor , Roger F. Thoma , Donald G. Uzarski , David M. Lodge

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of invertebrates, and specifically crayfish, to nearshore food webs in the Laurentian Great Lakes, past and present ecological studies in the Great Lakes have predominantly focused on fishes. Using data from many sources, we provide a summary of crayfish diversity and distribution throughout the Great Lakes from 1882 to 2008 for 1456 locations where crayfish have been surveyed. Sampling effort was greatest in Lake Michigan, followed by lakes Huron, Erie, Superior, and Ontario. A total of 13 crayfish species occur in the lakes, with Lake Erie having the greatest diversity (n=11) and Lake Superior having the least (n=5). Five crayfish species are non-native to one or more lakes. Because Orconectes rusticus was the most widely distributed non-native species and is associated with known negative impacts, we assessed its spread throughout the Great Lakes. Although O. rusticus has been found for over 100years in Lake Erie, its spread there has been relatively slow compared to that in lakes Michigan and Huron, where it has spread most rapidly since the 1990s and 2000, respectively. O. rusticus has been found in both lakes Superior and Ontario for 22 and 37years, respectively, and has expanded little in either lake. Our broad spatial and temporal assessment of crayfish diversity and distribution provides a baseline for future nearshore ecological studies, and for future management efforts to restore native crayfish and limit non-native introductions and their impact on food web interactions.





  • BUKOWSKI, JULIE A. writer BUKOWSKI, JULIE A. by BUKOWSKI, JULIE A. published by BUKOWSKI, JULIE A.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785013)
    Academic Search Premier
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  • Slater, Philip A.; Hedman, Kristin M.; Emerson, Thomas E. writer Slater, Philip A.; Hedman, Kristin M.; Emerson, Thomas E. by Slater, Philip A.; Hedman, Kristin M.; Emerson, Thomas E. published by Slater, Philip A.; Hedman, Kristin M.; Emerson, Thomas E.
    Journal of Archaeological Science; 04/01/2014
    (AN 95583804)
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  • Publication date: April 2014
    Source:Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 44

    Author(s): Philip A. Slater , Kristin M. Hedman , Thomas E. Emerson

    Archaeologists have long debated the role of regional interaction in the 11th to 14th centuries at the Mississippian polity of Cahokia. Architectural styles, exotic materials, and cultural objects provide indirect evidence for cultural interaction and ethnic and social diversity; however, identifying the movement of individuals (rather than materials) is key to our growing understanding of the population history that enabled the formation of this unique polity. This study is the first to use strontium isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr) of human tooth enamel to identify immigrants at Cahokia. Modern and archaeological fauna were used to establish a baseline “local” range of strontium isotope ratios for the American Bottom region surrounding Cahokia. Teeth from individuals interred in diverse mortuary locations, including mounds, within this region were analyzed and compared to the local strontium isotope range to identify individuals of non-local origin. One-third of all individuals analyzed were identified as non-local, and the range and variability of their strontium ratios suggests multiple places of origin. The correlation of isotopic data with available biological and mortuary evidence allows us to examine the role of migration in the history of this Mississippian polity.





  • EMERSON, THOMAS E. writer EMERSON, THOMAS E. by EMERSON, THOMAS E. published by EMERSON, THOMAS E.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784981)
    Academic Search Premier
  • FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B. writer FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B. by FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B. published by FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784980)
    Academic Search Premier
  • FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B. writer FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B. by FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B. published by FARNSWORTH, KENNETH B.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784982)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: August 2013
    Source:Chemosphere, Volume 92, Issue 9

    Author(s): Ephantus J. Muturi

    The effects of anthropogenic chemical contaminants on aquatic organisms are largely influenced by underlying environmental conditions. This study evaluated how larval rearing temperature influences the impact of malathion on the fitness of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to water control, and low (0.03mg/L) or high (0.05mg/L) malathion dose at 20°C, 25°C and 30°C and emergence rate, time to emergence, female fecundity and expression of genes encoding two antimicrobial peptides (defensin, cecropin) and an iron-binding protein (transferrin) quantified. High malathion dose at 25°C and 30°C resulted in significantly lower emergence rates compared to control and low malathion dose but this effect was not observed at 20°C. Female time to emergence was inversely proportional to temperature and was significantly shorter in high malathion dose than in control and low malathion dose at 25°C and 30°C but not at 20°C. Regardless of temperature treatment, females from high malathion dose were significantly larger and laid more eggs than their counterparts in control and low malathion dose. Relative to the controls, two immune genes were significantly over-expressed in adult females from malathion-exposed treatments at 20°C (defensin and cecropin) and 25°C (defensin and transferrin) and one gene (defensin) was significantly under-expressed at 30°C. These findings suggest that larval rearing temperature can modify the effect of malathion on fitness traits in mosquitoes.

    Highlights

    ► Determined how temperature modifies effect of malathion on Aedes aegypti traits. ► Larvae exposed to three malathion doses at three temperatures. ► Quantified emergence rate, adult size, fecundity and immune responses. ► Effect of malathion on Ae. aegypti traits was contingent upon temperature.




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  • Publication date: September 2013
    Source:Mycoscience, Volume 54, Issue 5

    Author(s): Huzefa A. Raja , Nicholas H. Oberlies , Tamam El-Elimat , Andrew N. Miller , Steven E. Zelski , Carol A. Shearer

    In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new species, Lindgomyces angustiascus, from submerged wood in lotic and lentic habitats from Florida, North Carolina and Wisconsin, USA. The new species is characterized by black, partially immersed, flattened, globose ascomata; fissitunicate, long, slender, obclavate asci; and one-septate, hyaline, fusiform ascospores with bipolar appendages, each covered with a gelatinous cap. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of partial 18S nrDNA and 28S nrDNA, as well as the entire nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) region support the placement and establishment of this new species in the Lindgomycetaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes. Chemical analysis of the organic extract of L. angustiascus revealed the presence of 6E,9E-octadecadienoic acid and ergosterol peroxide as major secondary metabolites.

    Highlights

    Lindgomyces angustiascus is described from submerged wood in freshwater from the USA. ► Morphology and phylogenetic analyses support its placement in the Lindgomycetaceae. ► Chemical analysis revealed the presence of two major secondary metabolites. ► 6E,9E-octadecadienoic acid and ergosterol peroxide.




  • DAPPERT, CLAIRE P. writer DAPPERT, CLAIRE P. by DAPPERT, CLAIRE P. published by DAPPERT, CLAIRE P.
    International Journal of Nautical Archaeology; 09/01/2011
    (AN 63644400)
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  • Torres, Alexander; Bond, Tami C.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; et al. writer Torres, Alexander; Bond, Tami C.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; et al. by Torres, Alexander; Bond, Tami C.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; et al. published by Torres, Alexander; Bond, Tami C.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; et al.
    Title: Measuring Organic Carbon and Black Carbon in Rainwater: Evaluation of Methods
    Author(s): Torres, Alexander; Bond, Tami C.; Lehmann, Christopher M. B.; et al.
    Source: AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 48 (3): 239-250 MAR 4 2014
    Document Type: Article
  • FISHEL, RICHARD L.; NOLAN, DAVID J. writer FISHEL, RICHARD L.; NOLAN, DAVID J. by FISHEL, RICHARD L.; NOLAN, DAVID J. published by FISHEL, RICHARD L.; NOLAN, DAVID J.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785016)
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  • Publication date: June 2013
    Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 124

    Author(s): T. Sammis , V. Gutschick , J. Wang , D.R. Miller

    Nut production from pecans, almonds, and pistachios figures heavily in the economies of California, Texas, and New Mexico, as well as several other states, and surface irrigation water supplies have been reduced in low runoff years in the western United States. Water and nitrogen management in tree crops is constrained through lack of information and inability to provide targeted management. The goal of this research was to develop an improved management pecan model to monitor and predict water and nutrient demand and nutrient status in pecan trees, along with the interaction of nutrient and water stress on nut yield. The pecan nut tree model developed by Andales et al. (2006) had a nutrient uptake and allocation and nutrient stress subroutine added to the model to predict the interaction of water and nutrient stress (nitrogen and potassium). The nitrogen submodel presented simulates the interaction of nitrogen transformation, soil temperature, water, and nitrogen uptake to describe nitrate distribution in the root zone of a growing pecan tree for the entire growing season. The nitrogen submodel follows the nitrogen transformation equation developed by Jones and Kiniry (1986) for the CERES-maize model. The nitrogen root uptake submodel follows the approach developed by Yanai (1994), which is a model of solute uptake that accepts root growth, water uptake, and soil solution concentrations as time-varying inputs that interactively link plant and soil processes. The model was tested against a nitrogen–potassium water stress experiment conducted by Smith et al. (1985) in Oklahoma from 1978 to 1983 where the pecan trees received varying rainfall amounts, the only source of water, and four levels of nitrogen application. The measured yield response represented a water nitrogen stress response. The model over-predicted the yield by 42% compared to the measured yield, but the model under-predicted yield by 21% in 1981 with 0kg/ha of applied N and under-predicted yield by 13% when 224kg/ha N was applied that year. The current pecan model appears to simulate water stress reasonably well but may overestimate the nitrogen uptake by the pecan trees and underestimate the reduction in yield caused by nitrogen stress. The model also may overestimate yield through lack of an insect damage submodel.





  • KOLDEHOFF, BRAD; BUKOWSKI, JULIE A. writer KOLDEHOFF, BRAD; BUKOWSKI, JULIE A. by KOLDEHOFF, BRAD; BUKOWSKI, JULIE A. published by KOLDEHOFF, BRAD; BUKOWSKI, JULIE A.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785011)
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  • Publication date: October 2013
    Source:Fisheries Research, Volume 147

    Author(s): Karen J. Murchie , Steven J. Cooke , Andy J. Danylchuk , Sascha E. Danylchuk , Tony L. Goldberg , Cory D. Suski , David P. Philipp

    Bonefish (Albula spp.) are a group of fishes that inhabit tropical and subtropical marine waters worldwide. Large gaps in our understanding of the ecology of these fishes exist despite their economic importance as a sport fish and their potential role in the ecological functioning of coastal systems. Using a passive acoustic telemetry array, we monitored the movement patterns of A. vulpes along the north coast of Cape Eleuthera, The Bahamas. During the course of the study, we successfully detected 15 individuals for periods exceeding six months that permitted us to observe several previously unknown movement patterns for bonefish. Data indicate that bonefish exhibit periods of site fidelity where they repeatedly visit the same tidal creeks, interspersed with transient periods (up to 339 days) in which they utilize large areas of shallow coastal habitats or disappear from the study area entirely. Relative activity space, as measured by minimum linear dispersal, median distance traveled, and mean number of receivers visited daily, did not vary with fish size. Individuals associated in schools tended to display nearly synchronous movements. School-fidelity in bonefish may be influenced by school size, the duration in which an individual has been in the school, and the frequency with which schools mix. Bonefish responded to tidal influences and tended to move out of tidal creeks on outgoing tides and into creeks or shallow habitats during incoming tides. There was also evidence of increased use of tidal creeks during daytime when controlling for tidal phase. Seasonal movements toward the seaward portion of the array likely correspond with spawning. In general, the movement patterns of bonefish we observed demonstrate the importance of this species in the connectivity between nearshore (e.g., mangrove tidal creeks) and offshore habitats. Moreover, because residency patterns in a given area vary greatly among individuals and over time, this work points to the need to examine population mixing and spatial ecology over larger temporal and spatial scales.





  • Publication date: 30 November 2013
    Source:Electrochimica Acta, Volume 111

    Author(s): Junhua Jiang , Xinying Wang , Lei Zhang

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) microelectrodes with high surface area and open pore network were successfully prepared by applying modulated potential to a polycrystalline Au-disk microelectrode in ionic liquid electrolyte containing ZnCl2 at elevated temperature. During cathodic process, Zn is electrodeposited and interacted with Au microdisk substrate to form a AuZn alloy phase. During subsequent anodic process, Zn is selectively dissolved from the alloy phase, leading to the formation of a NPG layer which can grow with repetitive potential modulation. Scanning-electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray microscope measurements show that the NPG microelectrodes possessing nanoporous structures can be tuned via potential modulation, and chemically contain a small amount of Zn whose presence has no obvious influence on electrochemical responses of the electrodes. Steady-state and cyclic voltammetric studies suggest that the NPG microelectrodes have high surface area and keep diffusional properties of a microelectrode. Electrochemical nitrite reduction and oxidation are studied as model reactions to demonstrate potential applications of the NPG microelectrodes in electrocatalysis and electroanalysis. These facts suggest that the potential-modulated electrochemical alloying/dealloying in ionic liquid electrolyte offers a convenient green-chemistry method for the preparation of nanoporous microelectrodes.





  • Publication date: 1 February 2014
    Source:Forest Ecology and Management, Volume 313

    Author(s): Charles E. Flower , Lawrence C. Long , Kathleen S. Knight , Joanne Rebbeck , Joel S. Brown , Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler , Christopher J. Whelan

    Inadvertently introduced into North America in the 1990s, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) has been spreading across the Great Lakes Region resulting in widespread ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Native woodpeckers and other bark-foraging insectivores represent one of the few potential natural predators of EAB in the U.S. In this study, we combined observational and destructive tree harvesting approaches to assess bark-foraging bird predation on EAB larvae in a deciduous forest of central Ohio. Results of our observational study show that in an EAB impacted forest, bark-foraging birds forage more heavily on ash trees than non-ash trees, and that they forage preferentially on ash trees that exhibit canopy decline symptoms relative those with healthy canopies. These patterns were further supported by the destructive sampling of 46 ash trees wherein predation by bark-foragers significantly reduced tree-level EAB densities by upwards of 85%. Bark-foraging predation intensity increased with increased EAB infestation levels, with bark-foragers harvesting ∼45% of EAB in trees with thinning canopies compared to ∼22% in ash trees with healthy canopies. Woodpeckers harvest EAB in a density-dependent pattern that could contribute to population control. Despite bark-forager predation, EAB had a high likelihood of successfully emerging from the heavily infested ash trees (∼30% or 35 EAB per m2). Our results suggest that woodpeckers and other bark-foragers may use visual canopy decline, and perhaps other cues, to target ash trees with increased EAB densities. Moreover, our results provide insight into the indirect effects of invasive species on biotic interactions in forest ecosystems highlighting potential shifts in bark-foraging and other bird behaviors in response to a novel forest pest. Bark-foragers respond to EAB infestation and may thus potentially help regulate EAB populations and their spread in a mixed deciduous forest. We suggest that maintaining snags and nesting sites during and after forest pest outbreaks may enhance populations of bark-foraging bird species and, thus, their biological control of pest insects in temperate deciduous forests.





  • EVANS, MADELEINE G.; MCELRATH, DALE L. writer EVANS, MADELEINE G.; MCELRATH, DALE L. by EVANS, MADELEINE G.; MCELRATH, DALE L. published by EVANS, MADELEINE G.; MCELRATH, DALE L.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785015)
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  • Publication date: 1 November 2013
    Source:International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 119

    Author(s): W. John Nelson , Scott Elrick , David A. Williams

    Two small, down-faulted outliers of latest Pennsylvanian to Early Permian rocks occur in western Kentucky. These are the youngest Paleozoic rocks in the Illinois basin and are approximately 550 and 750km, respectively, from strata of comparable age in the Dunkard basin and Midcontinent. A continuous core, Gil 30, was drilled in the eastern (Cap Mauzy) outlier. Fusulinids (Leptotriticies beardi) from a depth of 59.4m were originally used as evidence for Permian age, although this species is now considered to be latest Pennsylvanian. Ostracods from above the fusulinids support a Permian age. The upper 103.6m of Gil 30 is assigned to the Mauzy Formation and contains intervals of bedded, micritic, nodular to brecciated limestone of probable lacustrine origin, alternating with marine to brackish-water clastic intervals that tend to coarsen upward, a single upward-fining sandstone interval, and a single 2cm thick coal layer. Older strata contain much more coal and almost no bedded non-marine limestone. The Grove Center graben, 18km west of Gil 30, is identified on the basis of an oil-test hole electric log and coal test holes. No core samples are available, but log comparison indicates that the Grove Center outlier contains at least an additional 67m of younger strata than Gil 30, and is a prime target for further study. Regional coalification and oil-maturation trends, along with lack of evidence for syndepositional tectonic activity in Gil 30, indicate that the Permian rocks preserved in Gil 30, and by extension the Grove Center graben, are likely representative of strata that once occupied much of the Illinois basin, probably in continuity with the Midcontinent. The Kentucky outliers, therefore, provide a link between the Midcontinent and Dunkard basins and may be important in addressing long-standing problems, such as the age of the Dunkard, and paleoclimate reconstructions.





  • Wrobel, Gabriel D.; Helmke, Christophe; Nash, Lenna; Awe, Jaime J. writer Wrobel, Gabriel D.; Helmke, Christophe; Nash, Lenna; Awe, Jaime J. by Wrobel, Gabriel D.; Helmke, Christophe; Nash, Lenna; Awe, Jaime J. published by Wrobel, Gabriel D.; Helmke, Christophe; Nash, Lenna; Awe, Jaime J.
    Ancient Mesoamerica; 03/01/2012
    (AN 82704231)
    Academic Search Premier
  • 4/18/2014
  • Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C. writer Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C. by Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C. published by Nolan, David J.; Hickson, Robert N.; Kuehn, Steven R.; Branstner, Mark C.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2012
    (AN 85351848)
    America: History & Life
  • Publication date: 30 January 2014
    Source:Applied Surface Science, Volume 290

    Author(s): Seyed A. Dastgheib , Jianli Ren , Massoud Rostam-Abadi , Ramsay Chang

    A rapid method to prepare functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon from coal is described in this paper. A mixture of ferric chloride and a sub-bituminous coal was used to demonstrate simultaneous coal activation, chlorine functionalization, and iron/iron oxides impregnation in the resulting porous carbon products. The FeCl3 concentration in the mixture, the method to prepare the FeCl3-coal mixture (solid mixing or liquid impregnation), and activation atmosphere and temperature impacted the surface area and porosity development, Cl functionalization, and iron species impregnation and dispersion in the carbon products. Samples activated in nitrogen or a simulated flue gas at 600 or 1000°C for 1–2min had surface areas up to ∼800m2/g, bulk iron contents up to 18wt%, and surface chlorine contents up to 27wt%. Potential catalytic and adsorption application of the carbon materials was explored in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol and adsorption of ionic mercury from aqueous solutions. Results indicated that impregnated activated carbons outperformed their non-impregnated counterparts in both the CWAO and adsorption tests.





  • 4/18/2014
  • Publication date: June 2014
    Source:Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 122

    Author(s): Brajendra K. Sharma , Bryan R. Moser , Karl E. Vermillion , Kenneth M. Doll , Nandakishore Rajagopalan

    Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture with average structure consisting of saturated aliphatic paraffinic hydrogens (96.8%), aliphatic olefinic hydrogens (2.6%) and aromatic hydrogens (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 190–290°C and #2 diesel 290–340°C). Characterization of the liquid hydrocarbon mixture was accomplished with gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, size exclusion chromatography, and simulated distillation. No oxygenated species such as carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ethers, ketones, or alcohols were detected. Comparison of the fuel properties to the petrodiesel fuel standards ASTM D975 and EN 590 revealed that the synthetic product was within all specifications after addition of antioxidants with the exception of density (802kg/m3). Notably, the derived cetane number (73.4) and lubricity (198μm, 60°C, ASTM D6890) represented significant enhancements over those of conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Other fuel properties included a kinematic viscosity (40°C) of 2.96mm2/s, cloud point of 4.7°C, flash point of 81.5°C, and energy content of 46.16MJ/kg. In summary, liquid hydrocarbons with appropriate boiling range produced from pyrolysis of waste plastic appear suitable as blend components for conventional petroleum diesel fuel.

    Graphical abstract

    image




  • Mazrim, Robert F. writer Mazrim, Robert F. by Mazrim, Robert F. published by Mazrim, Robert F.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 04/01/2011
    (AN 65100783)
    America: History & Life
  • Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B. writer Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B. by Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B. published by Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B.
    Journal of Archaeological Science; 07/01/2012
    (AN 75165593)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Pessino, Massimo; Chabot, Ember T.; Giordano, Rosanna; et al. writer Pessino, Massimo; Chabot, Ember T.; Giordano, Rosanna; et al. by Pessino, Massimo; Chabot, Ember T.; Giordano, Rosanna; et al. published by Pessino, Massimo; Chabot, Ember T.; Giordano, Rosanna; et al.
    Title: Refugia and postglacial expansion of Acroneuria frisoni Stark & Brown (Plecoptera: Perlidae) in North America
    Author(s): Pessino, Massimo; Chabot, Ember T.; Giordano, Rosanna; et al.
    Source: FRESHWATER SCIENCE, 33 (1): 232-249 MAR 2014
    Document Type: Article
  • Publication date: 15 November 2013
    Source:Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 80

    Author(s): Hong Wang , Andrew J. Stumpf , Xiaodong Miao







  • BROWN, MARGARET KIMBALL; MAZRIM, ROBERT writer BROWN, MARGARET KIMBALL; MAZRIM, ROBERT by BROWN, MARGARET KIMBALL; MAZRIM, ROBERT published by BROWN, MARGARET KIMBALL; MAZRIM, ROBERT
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784987)
    Academic Search Premier
  • 4/18/2014
  • Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy writer Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy by Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy published by Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; 08/28/2012
    (AN 79546848)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: February 2014
    Source:Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 100

    Author(s): Samantha K Carpenter , Nohra E. Mateus-Pinilla , Kuldeep Singh , Andreas Lehner , Damian Satterthwaite-Phillips , Robert D. Bluett , Nelda A. Rivera , Jan E. Novakofski

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is a biomonitor for organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) associated with a wide range of deleterious health effects in wildlife and humans. We determined concentrations of twenty OHCs in livers of 23 river otters salvaged by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources from 2009 to 2011, determined sex-dependent distribution of OHCs, and compared our results to the reported concentrations of four OHCs in Illinois river otters from 1984 to 1989. Since these contaminants have been banned for over 30 years, we predicted smaller mean concentrations than those previously reported in Illinois otters. We detected eleven of twenty OHCs; PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, and 4,4′-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) were present in the greatest mean concentrations. We report the largest mean concentration of dieldrin to date in the liver of North American river otters (mean: 174, range: 14.4–534 parts per billion wet wt [ppb]). Mean PCB concentrations were significantly higher in males (mean: 851; range: 30–3450ppb) than females (mean: 282; range: 40–850ppb; p=0.04). Mean concentrations of dieldrin were greater than those detected in otters from 1984 to 1989 (mean: 90; range: 30–130ppb; p<0.05). Our results suggest OHC exposure remains a concern. Future research in Illinois should focus on evaluating OHCs exposures, particularly dieldrin, at the watershed level.





  • Publication date: May 2014
    Source:Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 132

    Author(s): Zhongcheng Jiang , Yanqing Lian , Xiaoqun Qin

    Rocky desertification, which is relatively less well known than desertification, refers to the processes and human activities that transform a karst area covered by vegetation and soil into a rocky landscape. It has occurred in various countries and regions, including the European Mediterranean and Dinaric Karst regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Southwest China on a large scale, and alarmingly, even in tropical rainforests such as Haiti and Barbados, and has had tremendous negative impacts to the environment and social and economic conditions at local and regional scales. The goal of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the impacts, causes, and restoration measures of rocky desertification based on decades of studies in the southwest karst area of China and reviews of studies in Europe and other parts of the world. The low soil formation rate and high permeability of carbonate rocks create a fragile and vulnerable environment that is susceptible to deforestation and soil erosion. Other natural processes related to hydrology and ecology could exacerbate rocky desertification. However, disturbances from a wide variety of human activities are ultimately responsible for rocky desertification wherever it has occurred. This review shows that reforestation can be successful in Southwest China and even in the Dinaric Karst region when the land, people, water, and other resources are managed cohesively. However, new challenges may arise as more frequent droughts and extreme floods induced by global climate change and variability may slow the recovery process or even expand rocky desertification. This review is intended to bring attention to this challenging issue and provide information needed to advance research and engineering practices to combat rocky desertification and to aid in sustainable development.





  • YANCEY, MIRANDA; KOLDEHOFF, BRAD writer YANCEY, MIRANDA; KOLDEHOFF, BRAD by YANCEY, MIRANDA; KOLDEHOFF, BRAD published by YANCEY, MIRANDA; KOLDEHOFF, BRAD
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785002)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: July 2013
    Source:Aquatic Botany, Volume 108

    Author(s): Benjamin J. Beas , Loren M. Smith , Karen R. Hickman , Theodore G. LaGrange , Randy Stutheit

    Sedimentation and alterations of natural hydroperiods from watershed cultivation have affected most depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. This can result in altered plant community structure through changes in water availability and depth as well as burial of seed banks. The vegetation and seed banks of 15 wetlands were sampled within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska. Our objectives were to: (1) compare wetland seed bank communities among wetlands with different watershed land uses (reference, restored and impacted by watershed cultivation); (2) determine the available seed bank following sediment removal and establish if wetland zonation occurs in the deeper sediment layer of pre-scraped agricultural wetlands; and (3) determine the similarity between extant vegetation and the seed banks for each wetland land use treatment. There were no significant differences in seed bank species richness and the number and composition of annual, perennial, native, or exotic species among reference, restored, and agricultural playas. Restored wetlands had a greater number of upland species germinate from the surface soil seed bank compared to reference and agricultural playas. Availability of seeds after 30cm of soil was removed (to simulate available seed bank if the wetland was to be restored) in crop land use wetlands was low (2–52 seeds/wetland) making determination of wetland zonation difficult. There was no difference in the similarity between the seed bank and extant vegetation among the three land use treatments. Sediment removal appears to be successful in removing weedy and exotic species from the seed bank; however, the seed bank is not the primary source for playa wetland revegetation. Restored and reference wetlands have similar seed bank community characteristics (i.e., richness) however, each wetland land use treatment was associated with differing plant species and plant guilds.

    Highlights

    ► Restored and reference wetland seed banks are dominated by differing plant guilds. ► Restored wetland seed banks are dominated by mudflat annuals. ► Sediment removal leaves little seed for recolonization. ► Sediment removal successfully removes weedy and exotic species from the seed bank. ► Reseeding of restored wetlands is most likely needed to regain the species found at reference sites.




  • Publication date: February 2014
    Source:Journal of Applied Geophysics, Volume 101

    Author(s): Ahmed Ismail , Andrew Stumpf , Robert Bauer

    The vertical distribution of compressional wave velocity (Vp) and shear wave velocity (Vs) acquired from fifteen boreholes in central Illinois using the standard surface-source downhole-receiver method was studied. The velocity logs were compared with lithologic logs and gamma-ray logs acquired from the same boreholes to: 1) better understand the Vp and Vs ranges and variations within glacial sediments, 2) determine whether characteristic seismic velocities could be resolved to distinguish among the three major Pleistocene glaciations of Wisconsin (WI), Illinois (IL), and pre-Illinois (PIL), and 3) examine velocity variations corresponding to heterogeneities in the sediments composing these three major units. Results showed that deposits composing these units had highly variable Vp and Vs values. Only the contact between deposits of the WI and IL episodes could be delineated by a corresponding slight decrease in Vp. Other than that, neither Vp nor Vs logs showed significant contrasts at the contacts between these units. Some individual sediment packages, or intraunits, exhibited distinctive velocity patterns in the study area and were identified more clearly from Vs than from Vp logs. These intraunits are Wisconsin tills (T), Vandalia till (GV) and Mahomet sand (BM).





  • Markus, Momcilo; Demissie, Misganaw; Short, Matthew B.; et al. writer Markus, Momcilo; Demissie, Misganaw; Short, Matthew B.; et al. by Markus, Momcilo; Demissie, Misganaw; Short, Matthew B.; et al. published by Markus, Momcilo; Demissie, Misganaw; Short, Matthew B.; et al.
    Title: Sensitivity Analysis of Annual Nitrate Loads and the Corresponding Trends in the Lower Illinois River
    Author(s): Markus, Momcilo; Demissie, Misganaw; Short, Matthew B.; et al.
    Source: JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING, 19 (3): 533-543 MAR 1 2014
    Document Type: Article
  • Publication date: March 2014
    Source:Journal of Great Lakes Research, Volume 40, Issue 1

    Author(s): Joshua D. Dub , Rebecca A. Redman , David H. Wahl , Sergiusz J. Czesny

    Yellow perch have experienced widespread recruitment failure within Lake Michigan since the early 1990s. Efforts to explain annual recruitment variability have primarily focused on the first year of growth, while the juvenile life stage has largely been neglected. Juvenile yellow perch, age-0 through age-2, were collected annually from 2006–2010 in Illinois waters of Lake Michigan to assess temporal variability of size-at-age and size-selective mortality. Age-0 and age-2 total length at capture differed significantly between years with a maximum difference of 4.4mm and 11.2mm, respectively. First winter size-selective mortality was not observed for any year-class, however size-specific growth, with larger individuals growing faster than smaller counterparts, occurred during the first winter for all year-classes but 2006. Size-selective mortality was documented between age-1 and age-2 of the 2006 year-class with yellow perch less than 70mm at age-1 not surviving through age-2. Though population level effects remain unknown, size-specific growth and mortality during the juvenile life stage may influence the size structure and year-class strength of yellow perch in southwestern Lake Michigan. Identification of size-selective mortality occurring beyond the first growing season highlights the significance of rapid growth during early life and the importance of investigating whole life stages to identify factors influencing year-class strength.





  • Publication date: 17 June 2013
    Source:Quaternary International, Volume 298

    Author(s): Pu Zhang , Weiguo Liu , Yizhi Zhu , Hong Wang

    The inner Qinling Mountain basin is an ideal geographic area for examining the adaptation of the Yellow River Civilization into the transition zone of subtropical and warm temperate climates. Paleosol isotope and other geochemical and geophysical analyses were used to examine ancient farming and animal raising strategies, food structure, and past environment at the Zijing site on the inner Qinling Mountain basin. The organic carbon isotope suggests that the Neolithic and Bronze Age farmers in Zijing could cultivate up to 50% millet-like C4 plants, developed from the Yellow River Civilization, and 50% C3-like local plants during the interval from the Yangshao to the Xia-Shang cultures. The carbonate carbon isotope suggests that Zijing farmers could raise livestock on a relatively large scale during the Yangshao and Longshan periods. The carbon isotopic results are in agreement with other geochemical parameters, including soil organic and carbonate carbon contents, as well as the ratio of organic carbon and nitrogen. Magnetic susceptibility indicates a warmer and wetter climate condition from the Yangshao to the Xia-Shang cultures that facilitated agricultural development at this Neolithic site. The long cultural sequence sampled at this site shows that the millet-based agricultural system of the Yellow River Civilization at the Zijing site on the inner Qinling Mountain basin could have been practiced. In addition, the unusually negative δ 13Csc values likely also reflected a highly developed ancient agricultural civilization, which potentially has important implications for archaeology in China because of the southernmost record of millet agriculture in the Zijing site.





  • Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E. writer Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E. by Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E. published by Fischel, Richard L.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.; Emerson, Thomas E.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2010
    (AN 56673017)
    America: History & Life
  • BRANSTNER, MARK C. writer BRANSTNER, MARK C. by BRANSTNER, MARK C. published by BRANSTNER, MARK C.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784983)
    Academic Search Premier
  • 4/18/2014
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  • Publication date: 1 November 2013
    Source:International Journal of Coal Geology, Volume 119

    Author(s): Neil E. Tibert , Michael C. Rygel , Shelby C. Sanders , Scott D. Elrick , John Nelson

    Ostracodes recovered from eastern North American coal measures in the Appalachian, Illinois, and Maritimes Basins have the potential to resolve the temporal and spatial relationships of the strata deposited during the Pennsylvanian–Permian boundary interval. The ostracode associations include: (1) a Pennsylvanian (Virgilian; Gzhelian) marine association dominated Hollinella cushmani with abundant brachiopods and foraminifera exclusive to the GIL 30 Core in Kentucky (Illinois Basin); (2) a latest Pennsylvanian (Virgilian; Gzhelian) brackish association dominated by Geisina upsoni (Kellet), Cavellina nebrascensis (Geintz), and Velatomorpha fittsi (Kellet) exclusive to the GIL 30 Core in Kentucky (Illinois Basin); and (3) an uppermost Permian (Asselian/Sakmarian) association of nonmarine taxa dominated by Whipplella cuneiformis (Holland), Whipplella parvula (Holland), Paleodarwinula hollandi (Scott), and Haworthina bulleta (Harris and Lalicker) that occurs in the uppermost continental facies of both the Illinois and Dunkard Basins. A comparable nonmarine association of Paleodarwinula hollandi and Whipplella bretonensis (Copeland) occurs in the Bolsovian to Cantabrian (Moscovian to Kasimovian) coal measures of the Maritimes Basin of Atlantic Canada. The data presented herein provides new information about the withdrawal of marine waters from several major Late Paleozoic basins in eastern North America. Mid-continental marine influence persisted into the latest Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian during deposition in the eastern Illinois Basin on the western Appalachian coastal plain. The uppermost nonmarine association of nonmarine Ostracoda in both the Illinois Basin and Dunkard Basin indicates a synchronous development of aquatic freshwater faunas during Lower Permian times. With increasing geographic isolation of the eastern North American basins, the dispersal and radiation of Ostracoda in these basins was apparently facilitated by brood rearing as demonstrated by the dominance of the Platycopina and Darwinulocopina.





  • Publication date: February 2014
    Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 88

    Author(s): Michael P. Ward , Mark Alessi , Thomas J. Benson , Scott J. Chiavacci

    Most birds are socially monogamous, diurnally active and have small home ranges. These birds occasionally undertake extraterritorial forays, presumably to seek extrapair copulations. We used automated radiotelemetry to examine nocturnal forays and activity of a diurnal, socially monogamous passerine, the yellow-breasted chat, Icterina virens. Males and females forayed during both day and night, but night forays were more common. In addition to varying between day and night, there were sex- and breeding-stage-specific differences in foraying behaviour. Males forayed more than females and more frequently when their female was not fertile. Conversely, females primarily forayed when fertile. We suggest that females foray at night to avoid detection, because their mate's knowledge of potential extrapair copulations may result in harassment or decreased parental care. Both sexes were nocturnally active; however, the activity of males peaked when their mates were fertile, probably to prevent their mates from foraying and guarding them from foraying males. The nocturnal behaviour of chats suggest that extraterritorial forays may be more common than previously thought and that nocturnal behaviours may be crucial for understanding the strategies males and females use to acquire extrapair copulations.





  • Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E. writer Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E. by Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E. published by Emerson, Thomas E.; Farnsworth, Kenneth B.; Wisseman, Sarah U.; Hughes, Randall E.
    American Antiquity; 01/01/2013
    (AN 85471993)
    Academic Search Premier
  • JACKSON, DOUGLAS K. writer JACKSON, DOUGLAS K. by JACKSON, DOUGLAS K. published by JACKSON, DOUGLAS K.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66784996)
    Academic Search Premier
  • 4/18/2014
  • PORUBCAN, PAULA J.; GERACI, PETER J.; BALTUS, MELISSA R. writer PORUBCAN, PAULA J.; GERACI, PETER J.; BALTUS, MELISSA R. by PORUBCAN, PAULA J.; GERACI, PETER J.; BALTUS, MELISSA R. published by PORUBCAN, PAULA J.; GERACI, PETER J.; BALTUS, MELISSA R.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785007)
    Academic Search Premier
  • WITTY, CHARLES O.; HERTEL, MERA A. writer WITTY, CHARLES O.; HERTEL, MERA A. by WITTY, CHARLES O.; HERTEL, MERA A. published by WITTY, CHARLES O.; HERTEL, MERA A.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 01/01/2010
    (AN 66784984)
    Academic Search Premier
  • KOZUCH, LAURA writer KOZUCH, LAURA by KOZUCH, LAURA published by KOZUCH, LAURA
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785003)
    Academic Search Premier
  • DAPPERT, CLAIRE P. writer DAPPERT, CLAIRE P. by DAPPERT, CLAIRE P. published by DAPPERT, CLAIRE P.
    International Journal of Nautical Archaeology; 03/01/2012
    (AN 71842711)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: 1 November 2013
    Source:Forest Ecology and Management, Volume 307

    Author(s): James C. Bednarz , Martin J. Huss , Thomas J. Benson , Daniel E. Varland

    Decaying wood plays a vital role in maintaining biological diversity and ecological processes within forest ecosystems. One enhancement that may help to maintain wood-decay processes in managed forests involves the inoculation of healthy trees with fungus to create potential habitat trees to enable excavation for foraging and nesting by primary cavity nesters (i.e., woodpeckers); however, this approach has only received limited evaluation. We evaluated the inoculation of Fomitopsis pinicola into live trees in managed forests in western Washington in 1997 and 1998. In 2006, we revisited trees that were inoculated with live fungus or sterile controls, and inspected each tree for the presence of fungal growth and woodpecker activity. Of 650 trees inoculated with fungus (n =330) or a sterile control (n =320), 528 (81.2%) were alive and standing in 2006 (n =276 with fungus, 83.6%; n =252 control trees, 78.8%). Trees had been lost to harvest (11.1%), blowdown (3.8%), breakage (2.9%), and had died of undetermined causes (0.9%). A higher proportion of treatment trees displayed F. pinicola conks (0.200) and mycelia (0.073; inferred to be F. pinicola) than did control trees (0.004 conks [unknown species], 0.012 mycelia), although the difference for mycelia was marginally significant. We also found that western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) had a higher proportion of conks (0.313) and evidence of any fungal growth (conks or mycelia; 0.393) than Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii; 0.064 and 0.112, respectively). Further, we observed evidence of significantly (P =0.010) more woodpecker excavations and sapsucker (Sphyrapicus spp.) foraging holes associated with the fungal inoculations (6.2%) than at control trees (1.2%). Although use by woodpeckers was limited, we suggest that this finding is ecologically significant as we observed no woodpecker use, except for limited sapsucker foraging, when we inspected trees in 2002. The fungal inoculations completed 1997–1998, to some extent, were successful as F. pinicola was documented in at least 36.8% of the treated trees. In addition to F. pinicola, an ensemble of fungi and other microorganisms was established into the inoculation wounds of both control and treatment trees, suggesting that wounding of a healthy tree under the right circumstances may be sufficient to initiate this natural process in younger-aged forests as it occurs in old-growth forests.





  • 4/18/2014
  • Publication date: June 2013
    Source:Ecological Economics, Volume 90

    Author(s): Elias G. Bekele , Christopher L. Lant , Sethuram Soman , Girmay Misgna

    This paper presents a graphical model of an ecological-economic production possibilities frontier (EEPPF) that explicitly considers the roles of market failure and technological asymmetry in the provision of ecosystem goods and services. An empirical example of a 6-dimensional EEPPF is provided using a watershed in Illinois where three provisioning ecosystem services (corn, soybeans, hay) and three regulating services (flood control, water quality, and carbon retention) are the objectives. When aggregated, provisioning and regulatory services form a linear-to-convex EEPPF, but regulatory services can be increased from 10 to over 90% of optimal with a reduction in provisioning services (crops) from 100 to 78% of optimal. While corn and soybeans are shown to form a trade-off with all other ecosystem services, hay is complementary with flood control, water quality and carbon retention. These three regulating services are complementary with one another, with water quality and carbon correlated at 0.80. These results demonstrate the use of GIS, distributed watershed models such as SWAT, and genetic algorithms as a valuable method to estimate empirical EEPPFs.





  • 4/18/2014
  • Publication date: 1 January 2014
    Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 1

    Author(s): Mary Beth Manjerovic , Michelle L. Green , Nohra Mateus-Pinilla , Jan Novakofski

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 – 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest.





  • GALLOY, JOSEPH M. writer GALLOY, JOSEPH M. by GALLOY, JOSEPH M. published by GALLOY, JOSEPH M.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785005)
    Academic Search Premier
  • Publication date: 15 April 2014
    Source:Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 90

    Author(s): B. Brandon Curry , Edwin R. Hajic , James A. Clark , Kevin M. Befus , Jennifer E. Carrell , Steven E. Brown

    Evidence of the Kankakee Torrent (Ekblaw and Athy, 1925) includes boulder bars formed on a scoured bedrock surface west of Kankakee, Illinois, and overflow channels that connect several moraine-dammed basins (Wauponsee, Watseka, and Pontiac; Willman and Payne, 1942). Geomorphic evidence of a large scale flood event in the Illinois Valley includes features such as erosional residuals (Hajic, 1990). The age of the Kankakee Torrent is about 19,000 cal yr BP based on the pooled mean of four radiocarbon ages of tundra plant stems and leaves from the Oswego channel complex (median probability = 18,930 cal yr BP, σ1 range, 18,870–18,970 cal yr BP). Analysis of recently obtained sediment cores from the middle Illinois River valley near Havana, Illinois, has revealed the bedrock surface is defended by a mantle of bouldery debris buried by 15 m of mostly slackwater lake sediment. Radiocarbon ages of needles archived in the lake sediment reveal evidence for an early lake phase that post-dates the Kankakee Torrent (18,030–17,530 cal yr BP) and a later lake phase (15,690–13,040 cal yr BP). The radiocarbon ages indicate that the deeply buried bouldery rubble was deposited by the Kankakee Torrent. Consideration of isostasy indicates that the earlier lake phase at Havana may have been associated with downward flexure of land surface in response to glacier loading. The younger lake phase was caused in part by deposition of a sediment dam (the Savanna–Deer Plain terrace) at the mouth of the Illinois River. The lake shoaled due to passing of the isostatic forebulge across the area.





  • BOLES, STEVEN L. writer BOLES, STEVEN L. by BOLES, STEVEN L. published by BOLES, STEVEN L.
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785000)
    Academic Search Premier
  • 4/18/2014
  • Branstner, Mark C. writer Branstner, Mark C. by Branstner, Mark C. published by Branstner, Mark C.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2012
    (AN 85351843)
    America: History & Life
  • Publication date: 30 October 2013
    Source:Journal of Hydrology, Volume 503

    Author(s): Bingjun Liu , Junfan Chen , Xiaohong Chen , Yanqing Lian , Lili Wu

    Extreme precipitation events are rare and occur mostly on a relatively small and local scale, which makes it difficult to set the thresholds for extreme precipitations in a large basin. Based on the long term daily precipitation data from 62 observation stations in the Pearl River Basin, this study has assessed the applicability of the non-parametric, parametric, and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) methods in determining extreme precipitation threshold (EPT) and the certainty to EPTs from each method. Analyses from this study show the non-parametric absolute critical value method is easy to use, but unable to reflect the difference of spatial rainfall distribution. The non-parametric percentile method can account for the spatial distribution feature of precipitation, but the problem with this method is that the threshold value is sensitive to the size of rainfall data series and is subjected to the selection of a percentile thus make it difficult to determine reasonable threshold values for a large basin. The parametric method can provide the most apt description of extreme precipitations by fitting extreme precipitation distributions with probability distribution functions; however, selections of probability distribution functions, the goodness-of-fit tests, and the size of the rainfall data series can greatly affect the fitting accuracy. In contrast to the non-parametric and the parametric methods which are unable to provide information for EPTs with certainty, the DFA method although involving complicated computational processes has proven to be the most appropriate method that is able to provide a unique set of EPTs for a large basin with uneven spatio-temporal precipitation distribution. The consistency between the spatial distribution of DFA-based thresholds with the annual average precipitation, the coefficient of variation (CV), and the coefficient of skewness (CS) for the daily precipitation further proves that EPTs determined by the DFA method are more reasonable and applicable for the Pearl River Basin.





  • Publication date: September 2013
    Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 56

    Author(s): Divya Ramchandran , N. Rajagopalan , Timothy J. Strathmann , Vijay Singh

    The bioethanol industry exerts a significant demand on water supplies. Current water consumption rate in corn dry grind ethanol plants is (11–15) dm3 m−3 of ethanol produced and (23–38) dm3 m−3 for cellulosic ethanol plants. The main goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of use of treated wastewater effluent in place of potable freshwater for cellulosic ethanol production. The effects of using two different types of filtered treated effluent; Bloomington- Normal, IL (Residential type) and Decatur, IL (Industrial/Residential Mix type); on the rate of fermentation and final ethanol yield from a pure cellulosic substrate were evaluated. Characterization analysis of both effluent water samples indicated low concentration of toxic elements. Final ethanol concentrations obtained with Bloomington- Normal and Decatur effluent and with a control treatment using de-ionized water were similar, resulting in 360 g kg−1 (0.36 g g−1), 370 g kg−1 (0.37 g g−1) and 360 g kg−1 (0.36 g g−1), respectively. These findings suggest that with proper characterization studies and under appropriate conditions, the use of treated effluent water in cellulosic ethanol production is feasible.





  • Publication date: 24 June 2013
    Source:Ecological Modelling, Volume 259

    Author(s): Yong Cao , R. Edward DeWalt , Jason L. Robinson , Tari Tweddale , Leon Hinz , Massimo Pessino

    Species distribution model (SDMs) is increasingly used to determine the distribution range of individual species and identify biodiversity hotspots. Of many technical issues, model over-fitting or over-parameterization is a major concern, which can lead to severe under-prediction. However, under-fitting and over-prediction may also occur if species requirements for environment are inadequately modeled. We used the collection data of stoneflies (Plecoptera, Insecta) from Illinois, USA to examine how often and severely maximum entropy (Maxent) over- or under-predicts species richness and species-occurrence frequency. A recently proposed AICc-based method (Warren and Seifert, 2011) was used for model-complexity control or regularization. Twenty-nine historically well-sampled watersheds were used to validate the predictions. The standard models, which used the default regularization (β =1), over- or under-predicted, depending on the watershed, species, and threshold used for converting suitability score into species presence–absence. The AICc-selected models (β =7–40) used 77% less parameters, but often strongly and consistently over-predicted. Three thresholds, equal training sensitivity and specificity, maximizing training sensitivity and specificity (MTSS) and minimum training presence, yielded most accurate estimates. Accordingly, we developed standard models for 41 species and identified the historically species-rich watersheds in Illinois. Our results offer new insight into the effects of regularization and choices of thresholds on Maxent performances.





  • Fishel, Richard L. writer Fishel, Richard L. by Fishel, Richard L. published by Fishel, Richard L.
    Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology; 10/01/2012
    (AN 85351849)
    America: History & Life
  • 4/18/2014
  • ZELIN, ALEXEY writer ZELIN, ALEXEY by ZELIN, ALEXEY published by ZELIN, ALEXEY
    Illinois Archaeology: Journal of the Illinois Archaeology Survey; 07/01/2010
    (AN 66785012)
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